John Bowlby article- 15-30 week old toddlers hospitalized for illness and have prolonged separation from their mothers.
o Protest phase (hours-weeks) cry, demand mothers return and resist attention from others
o Despair phase lose hope of reuniting, apathetic, unresponsive, - deep state of mourning
o Detachment phase recovered, while mother visited cool and indifferent.
o Permanent withdrawal from human relationships may occur if separation from mother is extremely prolonged or if
loses a series of temporary attachment objects. They become less interested in human contact, more into toys/inanimate
objects but still able to communicate.
Children reared in orphanages often failed to form close emotional ties to anyone state of depression and seemingly unwilling to
Attachments between infants and primary caregivers may be necessary prerequisite for normal social/emotional development
What are emotional attachments?
Attachment: close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and desire to maintain
People who are securely attached take pleasure in their interactions and feel comforted by their partners presence during
Attachments are reciprocal relationships
Neonate: newborn baby from birth to 1 month
Emotional bonding: strong affection ties parents may feel toward neonate
Before baby is born parents express readiness and affection
Parents who had physical attachment with newborn within first few hours of birth emotional bonded with it. Parental bond here
during sensitive period is and will remain stronger than those parents who had not had physical contact around birth period.
No evidence parents with none contact during sensitive period will have difficulties with bonding later
Adoptive parents are satisfied and have close emotional ties to adoptees even with no physical contact until sometimes months
Interactional synchrony and attachment
Synchronized routines : generally harmonious interactions between 2 persons in which participants adjust their behaviour in
response to their partners action and emotions.
Synchronized routines are established between mother and baby over the first few months of babys life
Baby shows more interest in mothers face between 4-9 weeks
2-3 months understand simple social contingencies . meaningful responses (i.e. still faces with disappointment or lack of any
6month olds smile briefly at parent to regain attention before becoming stressed by lack of responses
Interactional synchrony develops with careful attending to babys state; providing attention when baby is alert and not pushing
things when they dont want it or are over excited
With practice they become better play partners, relationship becomes more satisfying and becomes reciprocal
How do infants become attached?
Mothers interviewed one a month in Scotland for :
o How infant responded when separated from close companions is seven situations
o Persons to whom the infant separation responses were directed
Children were judged to be attached to someone if separation from that person reliably elected a protest
Schaffer and Emerson-infants go thorough phases as develop close ties.
1. Asocial phase: 0-6 weeks. Social/non-social stimuli will produce favourable reaction.
2. Indiscriminate attachment phase: 6week-6/7months. Enjoy all human company tend to be indiscriminate with it
3. Specific attachment phase: 7-9months. Protest only when separated from one particular individual. Will follow behind
mother and become wary with strangers.
Secure attachment promotes development of exploratory behavior.
Attachment object serves as a base for exploration or so can a caregiver. If a caregiver leaves, the baby can become wary of
exploring again. They need to rely on another person to feel confident about acting independently. Each object may have different
4. Multiple attachment phase: 18 months. Few infants are attached to one person, they can be attached to more such as fathers
or siblings. Love has no limits even in babies. Attachment to people doesnt lessen because they have more attachments
Theories of attachment
Psychoanalytic: I love you because you feed me
Freud: babies are oral creatures and have attachment to the one who gives them the most oral pleasure from feeding. Most often mothers.
Erikson: feeding practices influence strength of attachment. overall responses to childs need is more important than feeding itself
because it develops trust. Without trust with caregiver can make child remain skeptical about close relationships later
Learning: Rewardingness leads to loveInfants attach to people who feed and gratify their needs. Positive responses increase caregivers affection for baby and feeding is an
occasion when mothers can provide an infant with many comforts all in one sitting.
Caregiver is a valuable commodity who will achieve status is secondary reinforcer and once this happens the baby will do whatever is
necessary to gain their attention
Harlow surrogate monkey mother experiments.
o Babies preferred cloth mother to wired. Only spent time with wired if needed to feed. Ran to cloth is frightened.
Mothers feeding practices didnt predict the quality of infants attachment to her. 39% of these infants the person who usually fed
bathed and changed the baby werent the primary caregiver.
Reinforcement is the mechanism responsible for emotional attachment
Infants will be attracted to any individual whos quick to respond to all their needs.
Cognitive developmental: I love you I must know youll be there
Ability to form attachments depends in part on the infants level of cognitive development
Infant must be able to discriminate familiar companions from strangers companions have permanence.
Attachments emerge at 7-9months during Piagets fourth sensorimotor sub stage. when they search for/find objects someone has
hid from them
Bowlbys ethological: Perhaps I was born to relate/love
All species born with number of innate behavioral tendencies that contributed to survival of species over course of evolution.-
Imprinting is automatic young fowl dont have to be taught to follow their mothers.
Imprinting only occurs within a narrowloy delimited critical period after the bird hatched
Imprinting is irreversible and adaptive response-dont wander away to be eaten and can find food by following
Babies kewpie doll appearance may be adaptive-appear loveable and cute to caregivers to receive attention and appear
Baby reflexes have an endearing quality to draw caregivers in and increase likelihood of receiving care.
Baby learns what parents like in order to receive attention. Secure emotional bonds wont develop unless participants has learned
how to respond appropriately to each other.
Infants are acting participants in attachment process wo emit preprogramm