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PSYC 3460 (18)

PSYC3460 chapter three

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PSYC 3460
Stephen Kosempel

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 3 – Classification & Diagnosis Brief History of Classification In earlier times, (19 – early 20 century), there was great inconsistency in the classification of abnormal psychology; different systems were used in different parts of the world The DSM (Diagnosis Statistic Manuel) was first published in 1959, then updated in 68’ (DSM-II), and again in 87’ (DSM-III), and finally in 94’ (DSM-IV) The Diagnostic system of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR) ‘Mental Disorder’ is defined as “a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in and individual and that is associated with present distress (i.e. painful symptoms) or disability (impairment in one or more areas of functioning) or with significantly increased risked of death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. In addition, the syndrome can’t be an expected response or culturally sanctioned response, must be a manifestation of a behaviour, psychological, or biological dysfunction Five Dimensions of Classification With the introduction of the DSM-III, came the mulitaxial classification where people are rated on 5 separate dimensions: Axis I: All diagnostic categories except for mental retardation and personality disorders Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation Axis III: General Medical Condition Axis IV: Psychosocial & Environmental problem Axis V: Current level of Functioning These five axes are for a diagnostician to consider a broad range of information Although there are 5 axes, all abnormal behaviour is placed within the first 2 axes, the rest are to provide additional information for the psychiatrist Most people come to be treated for Axis I disorders, however sometimes they previously had Axis II disorders, which is why they are separated from each other Disorders Disorders Diagnosed During Childhood  Separation Anxiety (anxiety from being away from home/parents)  Conduct Disorder (repeatedly violating social norms/rules)  Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  Mental Retardation  Pervasive Developmental Disorders (including autism)  Learning Disorders (delays in acquisition of speech, grammar, reading ect.) Mood Disorders  Major Depressive Disorder (person is deeply sad and discouraged and is likely to lose weight/energy and have suicidal thoughts)  Mania (exceedingly euphoric, irrationally happy)  Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorders  Phobia  Panic Disorder (sudden intense attacks of apprehension, likely to tremble and shake)  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (fear & apprehension are pervasive, persistent n’ uncontrollable)  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (obsessions: thoughts; compulsions: actions)  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder  Acute Stress Disorder (Similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder but symptoms don’t last as long Somatoform Disorders  Somatisation disorder (long history of multiple psychical complaints for which they have taken medicine or consulted a doctor)  Conversion Disorder (report a loss of motor or sensory function i.e. paralysis, blindness, loss of sensation  Pain Disorder (suffer from severe and prolonged pain)  Hypochondrias (misinterpretation of minor injuries for serious illnesses)  Body Dysmorphic Disorder (preoccupied with an imagined defect with their body) Dissociative Disorders  Dissociative Amnesia (may forget their entire past or a particular period of time)  Dissociative Fugue (suddenly and unexpectedly travels to a new location, starts a new life, and cannot remember his/her past identity)  Depersonalization Disorder (sever and disruptive feeling of self estrangement or unreality) Sexual & Gender Disorders  Paraphilias (unconventional sources of sexual gratification (i.e. exhibitionism, voyeurism, sadism, masochism)  Sexual Dysfunction (unable to complete the usual sexual response cycle)  Gender identity Disorder (extreme discomfort in their anatomical sex and identifies themselves with the opposite sex) Sleep Disorders  Dyssomnias (sleep is disturbed in amount (too much/too little), quality, or timing  Parasomnias (unusual events occurring during sleep)
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