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University of Guelph
PSYC 3480
Dan Meegan

Sports and Exercise Psychology Chapter 1: Introducing Sports & Exercise Psychology - National accreditation standards identify sport and exercise psychology as a core discipline in undergraduate kinesiology and physical education programs (www.ccupeka.ca). - THE NATURE OF SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY  Sport psychology: is the branch of sport science that involves the scientific study of human behavior in sport and in the practical application of that knowledge in sport.  However, some professionals may see sport and exercise psychology more as a subdiscipline of psychology, much like health psychology or abnormal psychology. In this sense, sport and exercise psychology is ―a science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport or exercise setting‖  The academic home of sport and exercise psychology has become increasingly complex since it is recognized within both the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 47. o Positive Psychology in Sports & Exercise - CAREERS IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY o Teaching, research, consulting  The CPA, the Canadian Sport Psychology Association (CSPA), and the AASP have been proactive in identifying the necessary standards and competencies required for providing sport and exercise psychology services to athletes  Membership Criteria for the Canadian Sport Psychology Association The Canadian Sport Psychology Association lists consultants who fulfill the following basic criteria: • A master’s degree in sport psychology or a related field • Successful completion of a variety of courses relevant to sport psychology consultation and foundational disciplines, such as human kinetics or kinesiology, psychology, and counselling • Extensive sport psychology consulting experience • Hands-on experience in sport • Favourable supervisor and client evaluations  A number of professional organizations have drawn up codes of ethics, or guidelines,  that govern the relationship between a practitioner and a client. Three of these codes of ethics are particularly relevant to the sport and exercise psychology consultant working in Canada: 1. Ethics Code: AASP Ethical Principles and Standards (http://appliedsportpsych.org/about/ethics/code) 2. CSPA Code of Ethics (www.en.cspa- acps.ca/publications/publications.html) 3. CPA Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists (www.cpa.ca/cpasite/userfiles/Documents/Canadian%20Code%20of%20E thics%20for%20Psycho.pdf) - The post–World War II expansion of universities in the United States had an important impact on sport and exercise psychology. Several universities established laboratories in motor learning and behaviour, seeking to determine how people learned motor skills and how practice and feedback influenced learning. - Two major scholarly professional organizations were established in the United States and Canada. The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) was formed in 1967. It reflected the close ties between the training of specialists in motor learning and in sport psychology in the 1960s. NASPSPA focused on improving the quality of research and teaching in the psychology of sport, motor development, and motor learning and control. The Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology/Société Canadienne D’Apprentissage Psychomoteur et de Psychologie du Sport (SCAPPS) had its beginnings in Edmonton in 1969 but was founded as a society in Banff, Alberta, in 1977. Its main objectives were similar to those of NASPSPA, with a primary focus on research. - Dr. Albert (Bert) Carron is recognized as one of the modern founders of sport and exercise psychology in Canada - KEY HISTORICAL WORLD EVENTS IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY ■ Institute for the Study of Sport and Physical Culture established in Soviet Union (1919) ■ First World Congress of Sport Psychology held in Rome (1965) ■ International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) founded (1965) ■ European Federation of Sport Psychology/Fédération Européenne de Psychologie des - CHAPTER SUMMARY Sport and exercise psychology is an interdisciplinary field that is recognized in Canada as a core discipline within kinesiology and physical education programs. Sport and exercise psychology specialists are involved in teaching, research, and consulting roles, although most specialists in Canada are employed in universities and colleges. Various educational pathways involve training in the sport sciences or in clinical or counselling psychology. Specific training is often dependent on career objectives, whether as an academic (in either sport sciences or psychology) or as a practitioner. Some scholarly organizations, such as CSPA, do provide a certification process for consultants. However, provincial and territorial bodies regulate the use of the term psychologist as well as the specific training and examinations required to become a registered psychologist. All sport and exercise psychology consultants are guided by standards of conduct set out by organizations such as the CPA, AASP, and CSPA. Although the term psychologist has a specific legal meaning, throughout this book we will use the term sport and exercise psychologist to refer to specialists in the three areas of teaching, research, and consulting. The state of sport and exercise psychology in Canada, including its strengths and controversies, has been shaped by its parentage. In North America, sport and exercise psychology has been nurtured primarily in the sport sciences. The major Canadian scholarly professional organization is SCAPPS, although many academics and practitioners also affiliate with NASPSPA and AASP. At the applied level, CSPA is likely to have a major impact over the next decade, although the re-emergence (2006) of a sport and exercise psychology section within the CPA could influence future certification and training requirements. At present, sport and exercise psychology is taught in most universities, and research is flourishing. There is increased diversification into health and clinical populations. Sport and exercise psychology also continues to flourish around the world, with major academic organizations in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Asia. The next 20 years should witness several major trends, including increased specialization, diversification, research, and teaching opportunities. There will be pressure to improve educational opportunities and training of specific competencies for applied sport and exercise psychology services. It is hoped that faculty in programs in psychology, educational psychology, and sport science will collaborate to enhance the future development of sport and exercise psychology. Lastly, there is a critical need to bridge the gap between research evidence and professional practice in sport and exercise psychology. This process will require effective partnerships among practitioners, educators, and researchers so that sport and exercise principles can be effectively applied across multiple physical activity settings to enhance performance, increase participation, and improve well-being. Chapter 2: Research Perspectives in Sport and Exercise Psychology - Basic research: deals with testing fundamental mechanisms that produce conditions or events, without undue concern for the practical utility of such mechanisms. - Applied research: focuses on generating solutions to immediate problems irrespective of mechanistic details that form the focus of basic research. o the majority of sport and exercise psychology research falls somewhere between these two extremes. - Intuition refers to the development of an implicit understanding of the phenomena of interest in the absence of formal training. - Tradition concerns knowledge that is historically rooted, with no emphasis on current information. - Authorities are experts whose opinions are considered the final word in knowledge acquisition - Logic involves knowledge generated through the application of formal rules of reasoning to the problem in question. Rules of logic could be derived inductively (moving from a specific observation to a general principle) or deductively (moving from a general principle to a specific observation) - The scientific method is an omnibus term that includes a series of steps that are executed sequentially to generate knowledge (Baumgartner et al., 2002); however, experts disagree on the level of objectivity and the total number of steps involved in the scientific method. Nevertheless, it is generally accepted that this approach is an attempt to find the best solutions to solvable questions - Descriptive research provides an in-depth portrayal of a phenomenon of interest, either in general or for specific participant groups. A useful example of descriptive research in sport psychology is a study that describes athletes’ use of imagery in sport - Predictive research is concerned with establishing directional relationships among phenomena of interest. For example, Crocker and colleagues examined the relationship between changes in physical self-perceptions and health-related behaviours in adolescent girls over a three-year period - Basic Research Terminology o A variable is any attribute or characteristic that can change, or vary, thereby taking on more than one value. o Independent variable, which is the manipulated variable explaining (or causing) the study outcomes. o The dependent variable is the phenomenon of interest that is expected to change as a result of manipulating the independent variable. o Extraneous variables (or confounding variables). An extraneous variable is any variable other than the independent variable that could influence the dependent variable in a research study nomothetic, which concerns attempts to isolate rules or observations that pertain to most cases on most occasions or in most contexts o nomothetic, which concerns attempts to isolate rules or observations that pertain to most cases on most occasions or in most contexts o Idiographic is used when research concerns a special or unique case that does not apply to most people on the majority of occasions. o Null hypothesis indicates that there is no relationship between the variables under study or that there is no difference anticipated between the groups receiving the different conditions of the independent variable. o Alternative (or research) hypothesis is the researchers’ educated guess regarding what they expect to find when conducting the study. o Causal: This word implies a relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It refers to identifying agents that, when manipulated, bring about changes in the dependent variables of interest (Trochim, 2001).  Generally, three conditions are necessary before researchers can make a causal inference in scientific research. First, the proposed cause (independent variable) must be correlated with the observed effect (dependent variable). This condition is sometimes called systematic covariation. Second, the proposed cause must precede the effect, or there must be evidence of what methodologists refer to as temporal precedence. Finally, all other possible extraneous variables must be systematically ruled out as the causal mechanism. o An effective coaching style can enhance athletes’ enjoyment of sport. This is determined by examining the covariation between scores on coaching style measures and scores on athlete enjoyment scales. - Ethical Approval for Sport and Exercise Psychology Research o In Canada, the relevant administrative body is a university-based research ethics board (REB). The REB ensures that research is conducted in a manner that protects the integrity and safety of the participants and the researchers  The Tri-Council Policy Statement highlights all aspects of the research process that a sport and exercise psychologist should attend to, and it amalgamates information from key ethical documents that guide decision making in scientific research  Anonymity refers to the inability to identify a participant involved in a research project  Confidentiality refers to the retention of all participant data in confidence so that an individual’s data are not identifiable by others  Informed consent, and it indicates that the research participants have been informed of what their participation will entail and how the data provided will be treated during the research project.  Beneficence, which concerns the degree to which the proposed research will maximize the potential benefits while minimizing the possible harm to the research participants. This principle does not guarantee that participants face no risk, given that even non- invasive research carries risks such as disclosure of personal information or heightened emotions.  The third key ethical issue associated with scientific research is concerned with the notion of justice that pertains directly to the selection of participants for research - MEASUREMENT IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS o Levels of measurement represent different ways of assigning numbers to variables. The most rudimentary level of measurement is referred to as nominal. When numbers are assigned to variables in a nominal fashion, they represent measurement only as labels. In other words, the number 15 assigned to Kara Lang o Ordinal; level of measurement; reflects the assignment of numbers in such a fashion that the variable can be ranked. An example is the assignment of medals representing first, second. o Interval, reflects the assignment of numbers to variables so that the distances between consecutive numbers are equal. For example, daily temperature records throughout events, such as the World Cup, represent interval level measurement - Basic Measurement Concepts o Psychometrics, which is concerned with the assessment of psychological variables using numbers o Reliability concerns the consistency or stability of scores derived from single or multiple tests or measurement procedures  According to the true score model, every observed score is composed of two components that provide a numerical index of test-score reliability. The observed score is the actual numerical value derived from the test  Error of measurement, which is inadvertently introduced by the act of measuring a variable  Observed Score = True Score + Measurement Error o Validity is concerned with meaningfulness of the inferences that can be drawn from the numbers once they have been generated  Content validity, which assesses the degree to which test items (e.g., survey questions) are relevant to, and fully represent, the focal variable of interest  Criterion validity, which assesses the degree to which test scores (e.g., responses (e.g., indices of well-being, such as depression and vitality).  Consequential validity, which involves the actual and potential consequences stemming from test score use - SAMPLING IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH o Sampling refers to the process of selecting observations from a population for the purposes of a research study o A sample is a selection of observations from a larger population (Babbie, 1995). A population can be a theoretical population (all of the possible elements) or a study population (all of the accessible elements). o A research design is a plan that the sport and exercise psychology researcher will follow to execute the study o An internal validity threat represents another plausible explanation for the study findings, irrespective of the treatment or independent variable manipulated in the study. - Randomized Experimental Designs o Randomized experimental designs have two hallmark characteristics that distinguish them from other designs (Trochim, 2001). The first is that they randomly assign study participants to different conditions (sometimes referred to as different levels of the independent variable). The second hallmark characteristic is the manipulation of the independent variable(s). - Quasi-experimental designs. These designs attempt to unearth the cause of change in the dependent variables without randomly assigning participants to different conditions within the study - Non-experimental designs; These designs establish patterns of relationships between the variables of interest in the absence of group assignment or variable manipulation. In non- experimental designs, researchers place emphasis on testing arguments derived from theory or predicting criterion variables of interest to the sport psychologist, rather than on establishing causality. - QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY o Quantitative inquiry is an approach to research that focuses on quantifying or counting the amount of a particular variable or set of variables o Qualitative inquiry encompasses a set of practices through which researchers seek to understand the world from the perspectives of those being studied, or, as Merriam (1998) points out, to understand the phenomenon of interest from the participants’ point of view - Common Approaches to Doing Qualitative Research o Basic interpretive qualitative studies are used by researchers who seek to understand a particular phenomenon or process, the perspectives and perceptions of the participants, or a combination of these (Merriam, 2002). Typically, the researcher collects data through interviews, observations, or document examination and analyzes the data to identify patterns and themes. The researcher then presents a descriptive account of the findings and discusses them in reference to the literature that initially framed the study o Phenomenology is a philosophical tradition that concerns the structure or essence of a lived experience (phenomenon) for an individual or group of people (Merriam, 2002). In this approach, the researcher has to temporarily put aside his or her preconceptions and beliefs about the phenomenon or experience being studied o Grounded theory refers to a specific approach to qualitative inquiry in which the researcher develops a theory that is inductively derived from (or ―grounded‖ in) the participants’ data. o Substantive theory is ―localized, dealing with particular real-world situations‖ (Merriam, 2002, p. 7). For example, Sabiston and colleagues used a grounded theory approach to examine the issue of psychological growth in cancer patients (Sabiston, McDonough, & Crocker, 2007). o Case studies refer to ―intensive descriptions and analyses of a single unit or bounded system such as an individual, program, event, group, intervention, or community‖ o Ethnography is concerned with the study of the culture operating within or around a group or team. The term ethnography was initially used in anthropology to refer to a set of techniques used to collect data and to the final written product of using ethnographic methods. Ethnography can be distinguished from methods commonly found in ethnographic research (such as participant observation) when the data are interpreted and presented within a sociocultural framework o Narrative analysis is an approach to qualitative inquiry that collects data for the purposes of presenting a story, and more specifically, a story told in the first person, which distinguishes this method from other presentations of scientific writing. - CHAPTER SUMMARY o At the outset of this chapter on research perspectives in sport and exercise psychology, we introduced Coach Etheridge and the ―practice player‖ problem. Now, it might be prudent to return to this scenario and provide an answer to the perplexed coach regarding how to improve the training habits of her basketball players. A single answer to Coach Etheridge’s question may be inappropriate given the variety of research approaches that could generate information regarding the coach’s quandary. A naive methodologist may be inclined to be bold in giving advice to Coach Etheridge. Those researchers indoctrinated within the quantitative tradition might suggest that Coach Etheridge randomly assign her players to separate conditions and administer a psychological skills training intervention to one group of players in an attempt to establish the scientific credence of such techniques. Alternatively, others who have heeded Martens’ (1987) call for methodological diversity might advocate a phenomenological approach to the problem whereby athletes exemplifying both good and poor practice habits are interviewed to help Coach Etheridge understand her players’ viewpoints. In her article examining the ―state of the union‖ in sport and exercise psychology research, Gill (1997) lamented about the proliferation of authoritative advice treated as dogmatic gospel with this statement: ―Give us a hammer, and everything looks like a nail‖ (p. 50). Methodological advances, including the diversification of approaches to science, offer the sport and exercise psychologist numerous options (and challenging decisions) in addressing questions with inherent practical appeal, such as those faced by Coach Etheridge. Rather than stamping any single approach (or combination of approaches) as the ―gateway to acceptability‖ (Gill, p. 50), we recommend that newcomers to research consider what question(s) they seek to answer and select the most useful approach available, perhaps even combining some of the methods presented in this chapter. Our brief journey through the methodological literature has described and illustrated various issues and components of the research process that have bearing on Coach Etheridge’s predicament. Offering a solitary answer to Coach Etheridge’s situation would seem trite and trivialize what we have tried to convey about the nature of research and science in this chapter. Perhaps a famous quote from former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill puts it best: ―This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.‖ Churchill’s words encapsulate quite nicely the food for thought we would like you to consider after reading this chapter; namely, that any journey (or research in sport and exercise psychology) starts with an interesting question but in essence does not require a final destination, merely a path to traverse and a direction to follow. Chapter 3 Personality in Sport and Exercise - personality is ―the overall organization of psychological characteristics—thinking, feeling, and behaving—that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across time and situations‖ - disposition, defined as ―broad, pervasive, encompassing ways of relating to particular types of people . . . or situations‖ - Contrary to traits, states refer to momentary feelings and thoughts that change depending on the situation and time. - Cattell’s trait personality model proposes that there are 16 personality factors, called source traits, that capture personality. These factors are warmth, reasoning, dominance, liveliness, social boldness, rule consciousness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, tension, and emotional stability. Cattell’s work was a primary source for many sport psychology studies in the 1960s and 1970s. - Digman (1990) suggests that all people can be described in terms of the prevalence of five global factors (nicknamed the ―Big Five‖): openness to experience (opposite of closed-mindedness, curious), conscientiousness (achievement-striving, self-discipline), extroversion (assertiveness, energetic approach to the world), agreeableness (compliance, positive approach toward others), and neuroticism (feelings of tension and nervousness). A useful acronym to remember these factors is OCEAN. HOW DOES PERSONALITY DEVELOP? - The psychodynamic approach suggests that all behaviour is interconnected and driven by unconscious forces. o As well, Freud’s work contained an underlying theme that thoughts and feelings motivate our behaviours—a premise that is widely held to this day. Freud devised a structure of personality that includes the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is considered the instinctual and driving force of personality, the pleasure principle centre. The ego mediates the individual’s relationship with the environment, the reality principle. Finally, the superego is the voice of the conscience and morality, the should/should not principle. - Humanistic psychology focuses more on personal responsibility, human growth, personal striving, and individual dignity. In this approach, each person’s experiences, beliefs, values, and perceptions are emphasized in the present moment. o Self-Actual i zati on o Esteem N eeds o Soci al N eeds o Safety N eeds o Physi ol ogi cal N eeds - Cognitive-Behavioural Approach; The learning perspective suggests that all behaviour is learned through experience, and it discards notions of disposition, drives, or instincts proposed by other personality theories. - Bandura argued that people’s behaviour is highly influenced by their self-efficacy, the belief in one’s capabilities to achieve a goal or an outcome. o Bandura also emphasized the importance of social learning theory, which suggests that people are active agents in shaping their behaviours, influenced by their inner drives and environments.  Social learning theory involves observational learning (modelling), which occurs through observing, retaining, and at times replicating others’ behaviours Interactionist Approach: Dealing with the Person–Situation Debate - According to Endler and Magnusson’s (1976) interactionist approach, it is the situational interplay between the person and the environment that determines the specific behaviours of an individual. Most current research of personality in sport and exercise emphasizes an interactionist approach THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY - Projective tests contain open-ended questions, which provide a subjective perspective. The test taker is not provided with possible answers to the test questions. Researchers believe that the questions will reveal an individual’s hidden feelings and thoughts - Objective tests, are highly standardized tests that do not require the tester to interpret the meaning of the participant’s responses. Examples of objective, standardized tests that present individuals with a choice of responses are Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (16PF) o Sport-Specific Measures  (1) the Athletic Motivation Inventory  The Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) was designed to measure the personality and motivation of athletes participating in competitive sports. It was the first sport-specific psychological test to be developed, and it measures personality traits within a specific sport, such as ability to cope with emotional stress, dedication to the coach and sport, and traits predictive of athletic success  (2) the Sport Competition Anxiety Test  developed by Martens (1977), is a sport-specific measure designed to capture competitive trait anxiety. Trait anxiety refers to a general disposition to respond to a variety of situations with feelings of concern or worry, along with having heightened physiological arousal  (3) the Profile of Mood States  The POMS assesses six discrete affective states: tension-anxiety (TEN), depression-dejection (DEP), anger-hostility (ANG), vigour (VIG), fatigue (FAT), and confusion-bewilderment (CON). A total mood score can be calculated by subtracting the score for vigour from the sum of the other five scores. o Weak o a meta-analysis (a research technique in which the results o of many studies are combined) on studies that had used the POMS - risk taking involves narrowing the margin of safety, both physically and psychologically Ranshel, 2003). The elements of danger and possibility of bodily harm, injury, and physical loss are inherent in some sports, such as skydiving, race-car driving, and downhill skiing - Sensation (stimulus) seeking has been defined as ―the seeking of varied, novel, complex and intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks for the sake of such experiences - Competitiveness is conceptualized as a desire to engage in and strive for success in sport achievement situations - Perfectionism is a relatively stable personality construct that involves unrealistic, high standards, inappropriate levels of expectation, and high self-criticism o Maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism would involve excessive, unrealistic standards of performance, high doubt, high self-criticism, fear of failure, and high distress o Adaptive or healthy perfectionism consists of realistic goal setting, judging success through personal improvement and effort (task orientation), self- discipline, and achievement striving. Indeed, many of the behaviours associated with healthy perfectionism are the same as for conscientiousness and achievement striving o Two broad dimensions of perfectionism, namely, personal standards perfectionism (PSP) and evaluative concerns perfectionism (ECP). The PSP is similar to healthy perfectionism in which people set highly demanding standards and strive for goal attainment. ECP is related to unhealthy perfectionism in that people are highly self-critical, have high doubts about ability to obtained desired outcomes, and also believe others require them to be perfect - Mental toughness has been described as a personality trait, an outward expression of an inner commitment, and as a collection of psychological attributes and skills - CHAPTER SUMMARY - Personality is a very complex subject, and numerous theories represent various conceptual approaches. There has been a shift from grand, or global, theories toward more specific key aspects of personality. Investigations and viewpoints are influenced by the particular conceptualizations of personality. Furthermore, researchers are investigating how specific personality factors interact with other psychological factors in specific physical activity contexts. Measurement of personality requires careful ethical considerations. Sport researchers have generally utilized both general objective personality tests and sport-specific tests to assess personality variables. Personality tests should be administered and interpreted only by individuals with appropriate qualifications. Personality tests generally should not be used to select athletes for teams or positions within teams. There is no distinct athletic personality, and there is little evidence that a specific personality profile describes successful athletes. Athletes have varied personality profiles. Personality, however, will interact with the competition environment to influence behav- iour, cognitions, and emotions. Exercise is positively associated with extroversion and conscientiousness and negatively associated with neuroticism, but the links are weak. There is no consistent personality trait profile that separates one group of athletes from another, whether it be athletes on teams or in individual sports, athletes in contact sports or non-contact sports, or athletes who are successful or unsuccessful. Furthermore, no consistent personality trait separates athletes from non-athletes. Studies showing sta- tistically significant group differences in a particular trait or cluster of personality traits tend to find that the differences are small (practically meaningless). In many cases, the findings of these studies cannot be replicated. However, large individual differences in personality traits are commonly found among athletes. Some aspects of personality can be shaped by experience. This implies that sport can change personality. However, research indicates that sport has little impact on core per- sonality traits. This research finding may be due to two reasons. First, to determine the long-term impact of sport on personality would require extensive longitudinal research covering many years. Such research does not exist. Second, many youths enter intensive competitive sport in later adolescence. They bring many years of socialization that have already had a major influence on their personality development. Chapter 4: Motivation and Behavioural Change - Motivation can be simply defined as the reasons why you do the things you do - APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION FOR BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE o Behavioural Approaches  The behavioural approach to understanding motivation focuses on conditioning, or learning from the environment  Watson and Skinner, believed that learning from the environment, not personality or free will, determined people’s actions.  In operant conditioning, the athlete/exerciser associates behaviours with consequences that are learned though coincidental reinforcement o Cognitive Approaches  cognitive approach, emphasized the role of thought patterns and cognitive habits as determinants of behaviour. In contrast to the behavioural approach, in the cognitive approach the individual is viewed as an active participant such that it is his or her interpretation of the external environment o Cognitive-behavioural Approaches  Cognitive-behavioural approaches to understanding motivated behaviour are based on two central tenets:  (1) our cognitions influence our emotions and behaviour, and  (2) our behaviour can affect our thought patterns and emotions.  Cognitive-behavioural approaches, including self-  monitoring, goal setting, feedback, and decision making o Transtheoretical Model  transtheoretical model, or TM; has emerged as a framework to understand how individuals initiate and adopt regular physical activity. The TM proposes that individuals move through a temporal sequence of five stages:  (1) pre-contemplation (individuals do not consider exercising in the next six months),  (2) contemplation (individuals seriously consider beginning exercise in the next six months),  (3) preparation (individuals have made small changes toward becoming more physically active),  (4) action (individuals have begun exercising in the past six months), and (5) maintenance o Factors influencing stage progression:  self-efficacy, or the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce specific outcomes.  Based on expectancy theory, decisional balance is a multidimensional set of values linked with advantages and disadvantages of behavioural change. As a general rule, the disadvantages of physical activity outweigh the benefits for those who are inactive, whereas the opposite is true for those who are engaging in physical activity  processes of change reflect strategies that individuals use to progress through the stages o Theory of Planned Behaviour  highlights personal and social factors as influences of behaviour. The TPB stipulates that the most proximal determinant of behaviour is intention, that is, a person’s readiness to perform a behaviour  Attitude reflects the positive or negative evaluation of engaging in a behaviour.  Subjective norms reflect perceived social pressures to perform a behaviour that stem from various personal (e.g., family, physicians) or environmental (e.g., media) sources.  Perceived behavioural control reflects the extent to which behaviour is volitional and is thought to indirectly affect behaviour through intention as well as being a direct influence. o Behavioural beliefs suggest that being physically active will lead to certain consequences (e.g., losing weight) and an evaluation of the consequences (weight loss has benefits) o Social Cognitive Theory  is a widely used theory that describes the factors that affect and determine behaviour. SCT is rooted in the belief that individuals are proactively engaged in their own development, with motivation viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personality (developed by Bandura)  Observational learning: Individuals learn and acquire behaviour by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behaviours.  Goals: Behaviour is directed by the goals that individuals have.  Outcome expectations: Behaviour is a function of the expected positive and negative consequences associated with a particular behaviour.  Outcome expectancies: The expectations that an outcome that is valuable for the individual will follow a given behaviour.  Self-regulation: Behaviour is self-directed and is initiated, monitored, and evaluated by the individual in a way that is consistent with accomplishing his or her goals.  Behavioural outcomes: Behaviour is dependent on the individual’s knowledge and skills for performing that behaviour.  Self-efficacy: Belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments. o BehaviourPersonal Factors Environmental factors o Bandura recognized four main personal and environmental ways to change an individual’s self-efficacy beliefs: mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and physiological and affective states o Self-determination Theory  Self-determination theory, or SDT is a global theory of human  motivation and development that has evolved from the pioneering work of psychologists Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan The main focus of the SDT framework is the extent to which behaviours such as sport and exercise participation are undertaken volitionally as opposed to being controlled by some external agent (e.g., coach, physician) or contingency (e.g., rewards, deadlines; Ryan & Deci, 2007). SDT asserts that people are naturally endowed with innate tendencies for personal growth and development  early work in SDT focused on cognitive evaluation theory (CET), which specifies how various conditions shape (or thwart) the development of intrinsic motivation  Given that not all behaviour is intrinsically motivated, organismic integration theory (OIT) describes the extent to which behaviour is motivated for different extrinsic reasons that represent varying degrees of internalization.  Causality orientations theory(COT) uses personality-level constructs to describe individual differences in the degree to which people are self-determined as opposed to controlled.  Basic needs theory (BNT) is the fourth subcomponent of the SDT framework and is concerned with the nature and function of psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness in relation to motivation and well-being o amotivation, or the absence of motivation, which occurs when individuals perceive no connection between their actions and the outcomes to be derived from the activity. At the other end of the motivational continuum is intrinsic regulation. Intrinsic regulation is concerned with athletes and exercisers engaging in activity because it is enjoyable, interesting, stimulating, or autotelic (self-rewarding). o The next form of extrinsic motivation is introjected regulation. People who engage in exercise or play sport for introjected reasons are attempting to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt, shame) or maintain a fragile sense of self-worth. Identified regulation occurs when participation in sport or exercise is linked to personally important and valued goals that stem from participation. o Final extrinsic motive comprising SDT’s motivational continuum is integrated regulation, which is concerned with participating in sport or exercise because these activities are symbolic of the person’s identity.  Competence is concerned with feeling effective and capable when undertaking challenging tasks. Autonomy is concerned with feeling ownership over behaviour such that one’s actions stem from a sense of perceived choice and internal control. The third need, relatedness, is concerned with feeling meaningful connections with others in environments such as sport and exercise  Autonomy support refers to the provision of choices and options and the reduction of pressure  Table 4.5 on pg. 95 o Achievement Goal Theory  Two disposition-oriented dimensions based on how people define success and failure. Task goal orientation involves reference to one’s own past performance or knowledge as the origin of competence feeling  Task goal orientation involves reference to one’s own past performance or knowledge as the origin of competence feelings. For those demonstrating a task goal orientation, sport is perceived as providing opportunities for personal growth and mastery, the belief that success emanates from hard work, learning, and collaboration  Conversely, an ego goal orientation (sometimes called a performance orientation) is based on comparisons with others and has been associated with the belief that sport provides opportunities for gaining social status and wealth and that success emanates from outperforming others o Theory of Competence Motivation  behaviour is directed, selective, and owing to ―an intrinsic need to deal (effectively) with the environment‖ (p. 318); White called this concept effectance motivation. Harter (1978, 1982) concluded that individuals are innately motivated to be competent in all areas of human achievement, with sport being one such area. o Sport Commitment Model  Sport commitment is defined as ―the psychological state representing the desire or resolve to continue sport participation‖  The sport commitment model, or SCM was developed to explain how five factors predict or determine sport commitment: sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities o Sport enjoyment includes positive emotions about participating (e.g., pleasure, fun) and is often found to be the strongest predictor of commitment. o Involvement alternatives refer to other activities and how attractive they are compared to sport or exercise. o Personal investments are resources that the person has put into the activity, such as time, effort, or money. Social constraints are pressure and expectations from others or norms that make one feel obligated to participate. o Involvement opportunities refers to things that the athlete or exerciser is able to do only if he or she continues participation, such as getting recognition, developing skill and fitness, travelling, and being with friends. - CHAPTER SUMMARY  Few topics are so intricate yet universally applicable as the study of motivation. Motivation was simply described as the reasons why we do the things we do; however, this chapter has outlined the complexity of understanding motivational processes. The main factors that influence our motivation are personal, cognitive (i.e., what we think), and environmental factors. There are three broad approaches to help understand motivation as it applies to behavioural change: behavioural, cognitive, and cognitive- behavioural. The main objective of this chapter was to highlight various theories and models that individuals interested in sport and exercise psychology have devised to understand how motivational processes influence physical activity behaviour. As seen with these theories, understanding motivation as applied to behavioural change is a complex interplay of personal and environmental considerations. For those interested in facilitating behavioural change, various practical strategies were identified. While many approaches to understanding motivation were outlined in this chapter, it is not fully inclusive of all the ways that motivation in physical activity contexts has been studied (e.g., social- ecological models and environmental approaches to understanding physical activity behaviour have gained prominence in the literature in recent years). Page 321 – 324 of Chapter 12: Self-concept & Self-esteem - Self-concept has come to be viewed as a multiple domain of self-structure, with specific self-concepts for specific roles in life, such as physical, social, emotional, and academic dimensions. - Self-esteem has been described as a ―personal judgment of worthinness‖ UNITS 4-7 Chapter 5 pp. 111-137: Anxiety in Sport & Exersize - Anxiety Is Not Arousal - Arousal is a blend of physiological and psychological activation of an individual’s autonomic nervous system - Anxiety is most commonly understood as a negative emotion. Anxiety is proposed to have the following characteristics: (1) it is elicited following an appraisal (i.e., evaluation) of a specific situation or event, (2) it is universally observed across people of all cultures, (3) it has a distinct physiology, (4) it is observed through a discrete facial expression, and (5) it is associated with a unique set of behaviours that are called action tendencies - anxiety is composed of two components, a mental and a physical component. o The mental component is called cognitive anxiety, and it reflects the athlete’s concerns or worries and the reduced ability to focus or concentrate (Krane, 1994). The other component, called somatic anxiety, is defined as ―the physiological and affective elements of the anxiety experience that develop directly from autonomic arousal‖ - competitive anxiety is a form of social anxiety (Leary, 1992). In this form of anxiety, athletes may be concerned about their body, their performance, their fitness level, or their skills being evaluated by spectators, teammates, coaches, family, or friends - Social physique anxiety is the tendency to experience anxiety as a result of perceiving that others may evaluate one’s physique in social settings - Dimensions of the anxiety response o Intensity of symptoms, frequency of cognitive intrusions, directional interpretation of symptoms - competitive trait anxiety, the tendency to experience anxiety during competitive situations, and social physique anxiety - poor self-presentation beliefs (source of anxiety) (i.e., the beliefs that one will present one’s physical self to others in a negative way) were related to elevations in competitive trait and state anxiety intensity. - self-presentational self-efficacy, which is the confidence in one’s ability to present images of being an exerciser. - Self-handicapping is defined as ―any action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and internalize (reasonably accept credit for) success‖ - It can be generally concluded that elevations in the intensity of anxiety responses in athletes and exercisers are associated with (1) novice expertise, (2) being female, (3) high trait anxiety, (4) low self-confidence (and low self-efficacy) in individual and team competencies, (5) negative or poor self-presentational beliefs, (6) poor self-regulatory skills, and (7) the use of self-handicapping strategies. - Environment-based sources of anxiety o Temporal Patterning in the Sport Environment: The intensity of an athlete’s anxiety response changes during the lead-up to a competitive event as well as over the course of the event  Studies have suggested that the presence of mirrors during exercise may increase the levels of state anxiety and social anxiety experienced  The type of clothing worn in the exercise environment is also associated with anxiety, particularly social anxiety  Simply exercising in the presence of others can increase anxiety in women. For instance, Focht and Hausenblas (2004) found that women who were higher in social physique anxiety and who exercised when other people were present experienced greater state anxiety during exercise than those who exercised in a lab setting by themselves. - Anxiety–Sport Performance Relationship Models o Multidimensional Anxiety (MAT) describes the relationships between components of anxiety and sport performance. The first set of predictions addresses the relationship between cognitive and somatic components of anxiety and sport performance. The second set of predictions addresses how the relationship between the component of competitive anxiety and sport performance may change across different temporal phases of a competition  The strength of MAT is its capacity to describe a very complex three- dimensional relationship (between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and sport performance) in a series of simpler two-dimensional relationships  It is somewhat inconsistent. o Zones of Optimal Functioning Theory  best performances are more likely to occur with optimal levels of state anxiety. Further, Hanin argued that optimal state anxiety is a bandwidth, or zone, of state anxiety intensity scores (not a specific value) that is specific to the individual athlete and is not dependent on motor skill requirements of the sport or the athlete’s skill level  the central tenet of the Zones of Optimal Functioning (ZOF) hypothesis is that an athlete who is within his or her identified competitive state anxiety zone will be more likely to have a best athletic performance. If the athlete has anxiety that is outside of his or her optimal zone (either too low or too high), performance is likely to be impaired o The cusp catastrophe theory attempts to describe the combined, or interactive, influences of the multiple components of competitive anxiety and physiological arousal on athletic performance). It is emphasized that physiological arousal, rather than somatic anxiety, is included in this theory because arousal is argued to have both a direct and indirect effect on sport performance.  the intensity of anxiety is not always detrimental for performance. Essentially, this model makes five predictions (Woodman & Hardy, 2005).  1. When cognitive state anxiety is low, the relationship between physiological arousal andperformance is uniform or an inverted-U shape (as shown by the back face of Figure 5.2).  2. When physiological arousal is low, elevations in cognitive state anxiety are associate with enhanced performance relative to baseline  3. When physiological arousal is high, elevations in cognitive state anxiety are associated with declines in performance  4. When cognitive state anxiety is high, the effects of elevations in physiological arousal can be positive or negative for performance (relative to baseline performance). It is proposed that the combined effect of high cognitive state anxiety and moderately low levels of physiological arousal should produce more successful performances (compared with those produced under conditionsof low cognitive anxiety). This proposition implies that a high level
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