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Canada (161,809)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3480 (71)
Dan Yarmey (21)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology.pdf

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PSYC 3480
Dan Yarmey

Chapter 1 – Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology INTRODUCTION  Sport and exercise are complex and involve many sub-disciplines in the sport sciences, including sport and exercise psychology  Sport and exercise psychology has made major advances throughout the world as a legitimate scientific and applied discipline and is an important component of the sport sciences in Canada o A core discipline in undergrad kinesiology and phys ed programs THE N ATURE OF S PORT AND E XERCISE PSYCHOLOGY  Some professionals may see sport and exercise psychology more as a sub-discipline of psychology, much like health psychology or abnormal psychology o Sport and exercise psychology is “a science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport or exercise setting”  Sport and exercise psychology has been shaped by theoretical and methodological influences of both kinesiology and psychology  Academic home of sport and exercise psychology has become increasingly complex since it is recognized within both the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 47 Sports and Exercise Psychology: a Multidimensional Perspective  Integrate both sport science an psychological knowledge, but it integrates many areas of psychology  All areas of psychology are influenced by developments in other academic disciplines, including computer science, sociology, medicine, education, family studies, and women’s studies  Search for knowledge regarding human challenges goes beyond arbitrary, human-defined, academic boundaries  Canadian researchers and practitioners are cognizant of the fact that many human health and wellness challenges require a Transdisciplinary approach Positive Psychology in Sport and Exercise  In recent years there has been renewed interest in the field of positive psychology, an area of psychology concerned primarily with understanding what makes normal life more fulfilling  Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi suggested that positive psychology can be thought of as an examination of the subjective experience: well-being, satisfaction, fulfillment, pleasure, and happiness  Mush of the research in sport and exercise psychology is directed toward enhancing performance, social and physical well-being, and positive emotion  Psychologists often work with athletes to improve performance and life satisfaction  Peak performance in athletics and exercise is all about psychological, physical, and emotional strength  Many studies in sport and exercise psychology research devoted to such key factors as optimistic disposition, flow states, enjoyment, satisfaction, psychological growth, and challenge C AREERS INS PORT AND E XERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Teaching  Courses may range from introductory sport and exercise psychology to more specialized courses such as applied sport psychology, mental training, motivational counselling, developmental and lifespan sport and exercise psychology, and behavioural medicine  Some sport and exercise psychologists also provide educational services to community and sport organizations  Teaching situations may involve increasing the awareness of sport and exercise psychology, teaching basic principles of sport and exercise psychology, helping athletes to develop and use psychological skills to enhance performance, or working with clients to enhance exercise behaviour and well-being Research  Primary responsibility of sport and exercise psychology specialists working in universities to advance knowledge  Through specialized training, researchers are able to design, conduct, and evaluate many research questions  Sport and exercise psychology researchers not only conduct research but also present their findings at conferences and in refereed journals and books  Presentations and publications allow scholars to engage in discussions and debates about the strengths and limitations of various theories, methods, and paradigms Consulting  Third major role of the sport and exercise psychology specialist is to help individuals, teams, and organizations improve performance, change physical activity behaviour, manage sport and life demands, and enhance personal well-being  Specialists providing consulting services might be licensed sport psychologists, other specialists providing services might be individuals who have strong knowledge of educational and psychological skills but who are not formally licensed  In Canada, many professional sport teams and national sport organizations employ sport psychology consultants. In US, many major universities have FT consultants, not the case in Canada o Increasing number of Canadian universities to use sport psychology consultants on a limited basis  Consultants working in the fitness industry, in rehab settings, and progressively more in the business community  In Canada, there are very few individuals who many their living as FT sport and exercise psychology consultants  Sport and exercise psychology consultants tend to play 3 general roles o Educational consultants – teach psychological skills to facilitate performance, increase exercise, and enhance well-being o Counselling consultants – help with developmental concerns, adjustment, and challenges o Clinical psychology consultants – assist clients in educational and counselling areas, also have special training in psychopathology  Both counselling and clinical psychologists might also provide educational services in physical activity settings TRAINING TO BE A SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY SPECIALIST  Training required to be a sport and exercise psychology specialist is source of constant debate  Increasing number of students and academics are interested in applied sport and exercise psychology  Working in applied settings requires different set of competencies than that required in academic settings  What kind of training required? No easy answer! o To large extent, educational training depends on what career path a persona chooses. Multiple career tracks that combine teaching, research, performance enhancement, and the provision of clinical/counselling services o APA provides some guidance on grad training and career possibilities in sport and exercise psychology  2 general training orientations:  Sport Science Education, Clinical and Counselling Sport and Exercise Psychology Sport Science Education  Most sport and exercise psychology specialists work in university and college settings and thus require strong teaching and research skills o Extensively trained in the sport sciences and in research methods and take additional courses in psychology and/or counselling  Trends toward more interdisciplinary training that combines the sport sciences and psychology  Wide range of academic programs that provide varied learning experiences are available to students Clinical and Counselling Sport and Exercise Psychology  Closely associated fields  Clinical psychology training typically focuses on the assessment and rehab of serious psychological dysfunctions  Counselling trainings tends to focus more on helping people wit adjustment or development problems o Significant overlap in the training  Training is well grounded in psychological theory, assessment, intervention, research methods, and ethics and often requires supervised internship  Usually have completed grad courses or supplementary training in the sport sciences  Specific training for clinical psychologists is linked to the registration (licensing) standards of individual provincial and territorial regulatory bodies Courses and Programs for Undergraduate Students  Earn into either a sport science or psychology grad program often requires very different undergrad coursework  Ideally, student should take double major in sport sciences and psychology. Background would allow the greatest flexibility in pursuing grad work o If not possible – then the student should combine a major and a minor in an undergrad degree  Exact program and courses will be determined by the career path and the entrance requirements of various sport science or psychology (clinical and counselling) programs  Hoped that, in the near future, more universities will create opportunities that will allow students greater flexibility to pursue academic programs in both the sport sciences and psychology LICENSING OF SPORT AND E XERCISE PSYCHOLOGISTS  Many individuals providing performance enhancement services to athletes are called sport psychologists by the media – In Canada, provincial and territorial laws regulate the use of the term psychologist o Laws enacted to protect people from being exploited, possibly by untrained individuals. In most cases, psychologists must complete specific types of educational training and pass examinations set by psychological licensing boards  Number of professional who are well trained in sport sciences, exercise motivation counselling, psychology, and performance enhancement techniques, but they are not licensed sport psychologists – unless meet exemption criteria, should not call themselves sport and exercise psychologists  CPS, Canadian Sport Psychology Association (CSPA), and AASP have been proactive in identifying necessary standards and competencies required for providing sport and exercises psychology services to athletes STANDARDS OF C ONDUCT AND P RACTITIONER COMPETENCIES IN S PORT AND E XERCISEP SYCHOLOGY  Style in which each individual consultant works with an athlete or a team will probably differ considerably form one consultant to another
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