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Chapter 3

Chapter 3-Personality in Sport and Exercise.docx

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PSYC 3480
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 3 – Personality in Sport and Exercise W HAT ISP ERSONALITY ?  Personality is “the overall organization of psychological characteristics – thinking, feeling, and behaving – that differentiates us fro others and leads us to act consistently across time and situations”  Disposition is “broad, pervasive types of people...or situations” Personality Traits  Trait – relatively stable characteristic or quality that is portion of one’s personality  States – momentary feelings and thoughts that change depending on the situation and time  Most people have moderate levels of a specific trait, with only a small percentage having extremely low or extremely high levels of the trait  Various trait models have been developed over time, with many having been applied in sport and exercise psychology research o Cattell’s trait personality model – there are 16 personality factors (source traits) that capture personality  Warmth, reasoning, dominance, liveliness, social boldness, rule consciousness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, tension, and emotional stability o Digman’s five factor model – all people can be described in terms of prevalence of five global factors (“big five”)  Openness to experience (opposite of closed-minded, curious), conscientiousness (achievement- striving, self-discipline), extroversion (assertiveness, energetic approach to world), agreeableness (compliance, positive approach toward others), and neuroticism (feeling of tension and nervousness)  OCEAN H OW D OES PERSONALITY DEVELOP ? Psychodynamics  Psychodynamic Approach – all behavior is interconnected and driven by unconscious forces  Freud’s work continued underlying theme that thoughts and feelings motivate our behaviours. Devised structure of personality that includes the id, ego, and superego o id – instinctual and driving force of personality; pleasure principle center o ego – mediates individual’s relationship with environment; reality principle o superego – voice of the conscience and morality; should/should not principle  Freud – all behaviour stems form conflict and compromise, among wants of the id, the defenses of the ego, and the morality of the superego  Psychological energy was constant and this had to be directed toward socially acceptable activities, e.g. sport and physical education – discharge of this energy called catharsis Humanistic Psychology  Focuses more on personal responsibility, human growth, personal striving, and individual dignity o Each person’s experiences, beliefs, values, and perceptions are emphasized in present moment  Carl Rogers – when there is discrepancy between person’s self-perceptions and that is being experienced, this person might deny what is actually happening  Abraham Maslow – published hierarchy of needs in 5-tiered triangular model, which suggests that, as our basic human needs are met, we strive to meet higher needs o Tier 1 – physiological n
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