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PSYC 3480 (67)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 (part 2)-Exercise and Mental Health.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3480
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 12, Part 2 (pg 312-8) – Exercise and Mental Health A NXIETY  Anxiety may be defined as a subjective feeling of apprehension and heightened physiological arousal  Periodic anxiety is a normal emotion as long as it remains moderate frequency and intensity – is a reaction to the everyday hassles, frustrations, interpersonal relationships, and aspirations that we experience  Anticipation of real or imaginary problems can become so strong or recurrent that it reaches clinical magnitude. When this happens, the resulting anxiety interferes with family relationships, work, and personal well-being – maladaptive behaviours result  Different ways to define anxiety depending on whether we focus on specific contexts (e.g. test anxiety, SPA) or situational vs. trait aspects of the anxiety experience  State anxiety (SA) – ever changing mood component of anxiety; “right now” kind of feeling and is very situation specific  Trait anxiety (TA) – acquired disposition that influences our behaviour on a long-term basis; predisposes person to view wide range of events as threatening, even if that feeling is not objectively warranted by circumstances  Most of recent exercise literature on interventions has focused on SA Anxiety and Exercise  SA significantly reduced by long-term participation in exercise  Altchiler & Motta (1994) – both aerobic and non-aerobic exercise reduced SA; however, SA decreased more for the aerobic exercise group after a single bout of exercise than for non-aerobic group  McAuley, Mihalko & Bane (1996) – both a walking exercise group and a stretching exercise program significantly reduced anxiety compared o a ocontrol group who did not exercise  Parente (2000) – anxiety was significantly reduced in both aerobic exercise group and stretching exercise group  Watanabe, Takeshima, Okada & Inomata (2000) – a 70-minute water exercise program and a 50-minute land exercise program both produced significant reductions in SA and no difference between 2 exercise groups  Weinberg & Gould (2007) – summarized collective results of 3 meta-analyses and concluded the following: o Longer training programs are more effective than shorter ones in producing positive changes o Reductions in SA after aerobic exercise may be achieved with exercise intensities between 30-70% of maximal heart rate o For anaerobic exercise, reductions in anxiety appear evident at lower range of maximal heart rate o Exercise is particularly effective for individuals with lower levels of anxiety o Exercise is particularly effective for individuals who have elevated levels of anxiety, but also reduces anxiety for individuals with lower levels of anxiety o All durations of exercise significantly reduce anxiety, although larger effects were found for periods up to 30 minutes in length o SA returns to pre-exercise levels within 24-hours, maybe as quickly as 4-6 hours o Exercise associated with reductions in muscle tensions o Reductions in anxiety not necessarily tied to psychological gains resulting from exercise o Anxiety reduction following exercise occurs regardless of
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