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PSYC*3690 Article 13.pdf

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PSYC 3690
Benjamin Gottlieb

Article #: 13 Title: Bridging the Past and Present to the Future of Crisis Intervention and Crisis Management - the prevalence of social, psychological, criminal justice, and public health problems has increased dramatically in recent years, most notable are violent crime, traumatic stressors or crisis-prone situations, the onset or recurrence of mental illness, natural disasters, accidents and transitional or developmental stressors or events - all of these can produce acute crisis espoused and PTSD - crisis intervention can lead to early resolution of acute stress disorders or crisis episodes, while providing a turning point so that the individual is strengthened by the experience - the ultimate goal of crisis intervention is to bolster available coping methods or help individuals reestablish coping and problem-solving abilities while helping them to take concrete steps towards managing their feelings and developing an action plan - 2 factors in determining whether a person who experiences multiple stressors escalates into a crisis state are the individualʼs perception of the situation or event and the individualʼs ability to utilize traditional coping skills - particularly high-risk groups: early adolescents who have experienced a significant loss, suicidal ideation and plans, psychiatric emergencies, crisis on campus, battered women, divorce, HIV-positive women in crisis, substance abusers The Scope of the Problem and Prevalence Estimates - there are over 11,000 intervention programs in the US and Canada - crisis centers and hotlines provide information, crisis assessments, intervention and referrals for callers - 4.2 million calls are made to crisis hotlines annually Crisis Reactions and Crisis Intervention - a crisis can be defined as a period of psychological disequilibrium, experienced as a result of a hazardous event or situation that constitutes a significant problem that cannot be remedied by using familiar coping strategies - a crisis occurs when a person faces an obstacle to important life goals that generally seems insurmountable through the use of customary habits and coping patterns - the goal of crisis intervention is to resolve the most pressing problem within a 1-12 week period - crisis reaction refers to the acute stage, which usually occurs soon after the hazardous event - crisis intervention is more effective at this time - helping a person in crisis requires exceptional sensitivity, active listening skills, and empathy Defining a Crisis and Crisis Concepts - crisis can be a turning point in oneʼs life - a crisis is not the hazardous situation, it is the personʼs perception of and response to the situation - a hazardous event must come before a crisis as well as (1) the individualʼs perception that the stressful event will lead to considerable upset/disruption and (2) the individualʼs inability to resolve the disruption by previously used coping methods - crisis intervention refers to a therapist entering into the life situation of an individual or family to alleviate the impact of the crisis to help mobilize the resources - 5 characteristics of a person in crisis: (1) perceiving an event as meaningful/ threatening, (2) appearing unable to modify or lessen the impact of stressful events with traditional coping methods, (3) experiencing increased fear, tension and/or confusion, (4) exhibiting a high level of subjective discomfort, (5) proceeding rapidly to an active state of crisis Duration of the Crisis - typically 4-6 weeks to restore crisis state equilibrium (severe emotional discomfort) - crisis resolution can take several weeks to several months (cognitive mastery of the situation and development of new coping methods - goal of effective crisis resolution is to remove vulnerabilities from the individualʼs past and bolster him or her with an increased repertoire of new coping skills to serve as a buffer against similar stressful situations Crisis Intervention Models and Strategies - crisis intervenors should display acceptance and ho
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