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PSYC 3690 Chapter Notes -Blood Alcohol Content, Randomized Controlled Trial, Bacs

Course Code
PSYC 3690
Benjamin Gottlieb

of 2
Article #: 14
Title: Internet-Based Personalized Feedback to Reduce 21st-Birthday
Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Event Specific
Prevention Intervention
- evaluation of a Web-based personalized ESP intervention targeting 21st birthday
- goal is to reduce alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration
- also aimed to evaluate social norms, intentions and protective behaviours as
mediators of intervention efficacy
Who Benefits? (Target Audience)
- university students who will soon be turning 21
Universal, Selective, or Indicated
- indicated - each participant was screened and was going to turn 21 and intended to
drink 2 or more drinks
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
- primary - almost all 20 year olds received the treatment and the goal was to prevent
incidences of drinking extreme amounts of alcohol
- not secondary because there is no established disorder
Risk and Protective Factors
- risk = overestimating how much peers drink, intending to drink 2 or more drinks
- protective = limiting the numbers of drinks, avoiding drinking games, knowing where
oneʼs drink has been at all times, avoiding drinks that contain multiple shots)
Measures of Data Collection (what is measured, # of times, and how)
- baseline assessment 1 week before they turned 21
- randomly assigned to receive web-based personalized feedback or assessment only
- 2 days before their birthday and 1 day before their birthday students who were
randomized to intervention received an email with a link to the web-based
personalized feedback
- follow-up assessment approximately 1 week after the studentʼs birthday
- 21st birthday drinking intentions, actual birthday drinking and typical weekly drinking
was tested using a modified Daily Drinking Questionnaire
- intended BAC was estimated from a modification of the Widmark formula
- modification of the Protective Behavioural Strategies Scale was used to assess
protective behaviours
Intervention Strategies?
- feedback included normative information, protective behaviours and personalized
blood alcohol concentration information
- feedback about their intended number of drunks, the resulting intended BAC, and
effects of alcohol at varying BACS, they were also provided a printable personalized
BAC chart
- received graphic feedback regarding perceived and actual description norms for
drinking on 21st birthdays
- provided a list of protective behaviour strategies designed to encourage and aid in
moderation (setting a limit, spacing drinks, alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic
Results (what did the program accomplish)
- intervention was significant for reducing blood alcohol concentration
- primarily effective among those who intended to reach higher levels of intoxication
- some support for the reduction of normative perceptions of 21st birthday peer drinking
behaviour as a mediator of intervention efficacy
- event-specific personalized intervention can be effective at reducing heavy drinking
among college students during that event
- first empirically supported, entirely web-based prevention intervention to have been
found effective at reducing drinking behaviour
- reducing normative perceptions for peer 21st birthday drinking behaviour was
associated with lower BACs
- the intervention had no impact on protective behaviours but protective behaviours
were associated with lower intentions and drinking
- intervention effects might be a result of having received any feedback, additional
attention or multiple reminders
- low participation rate at the screening survey
- inconsistency between how we assessed protective behaviour strategies intentions
and the content provided in the intervention
- self-reported BACs become less accurate with higher actual intoxication levels
Other Important Facts
- 3 box model
- normative information
- protective behaviours
- personal BAC information
- reduction of normative
perceptions associated
with peer drinking
- reduction in intention of
level of intoxication
- less alcohol consumption
- lower Blood Alcohol