Textbook Notes (363,264)
Canada (158,281)
Psychology (3,263)
PSYC 3690 (60)

Article 24 -Optimism.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 3690
Benjamin Gottlieb

Article 24 Title of Article: Optimism -Examined a number of studies on optimism and pessimism -Optimism = + future expectancies, pessimism = - future expectancies –basic qualities of perspnality -Folk wisdom suggest differences, not always accurate but support in this case , several impacts on life: -Subjective experiences -How they approach problems and challenges -Manner and success of coping w/ adversity Expectancy-Value Models of Motivation -Assumes behavior is organized around the pursuit of goals -Importance of goal determines motivation -Expectancy – a sense of confidence or doubt about the attainability of the goal value -Confidence determines motivation -Crippling doubt –lack of confidence = little action -Goals vary in specificity and concreteness and there is a range of variations in expectancy -Optimism and pessimism are based on generalized expectancies -Optimists should be confident and persistent when confronting a challenge and are also likely to assume adversity can be handled successfully -Pessimists should be doubtful and hesitant and are also more likely to assume adversity will lead to disaster -Continuum, most people in the middle Variations in conceptions and assessments -2 main approaches 1. Measures expectancies directly by asking people to indicate the extent to which they believe that their future outcomes will be good or bad ---Approach used by this study -LOT-R (Life Orientation Test-Revised) is a measure used to assess expectancies -Has high internal consistency and is relatively stable over time 2. Measuring expectancies indirectly by asking people to explain reasons for past failures -Relies on the assumption that people’s expectancies for the future derive from the cause of events in their past -Focus on stable and global causes of failure represent pessimism -Both approaches have shed light on the nature and function of optimism and pessimism Subjective Experiences in face of Adversity -Women After Childbirth -Optimism related to lower depressive symptoms both before and after childbirth -Men and Heart Surgery -Optimism related to less hostility and depression, more happiness and relief before and after surgery, and better quality of life after surgery (above and beyond other factors) -Optimism funneled a general sense of confidence into specific optimism regarding surgery -Early Stage Breast Cancer -Optimism predicted lower levels of initial distress and more resilience against stress following surgery (above and beyond other factors) -Failed In Vitro Fertilization -The only predictor of distress after receiving a negative pregnancy test was optimism (not demographics, obstetric history, marital adjustment or reported effects in participants life) -Abortion -Optimists had less pre-abortion depression, better post-abortion adjustment -Optimism is related to lower levels of distress and negative emotions during difficult events and better adjustment/more resilience afterward, as well as lower levels of depression and physical issues among caregivers -Optimism relates to psychological adjustment directly and indirectly through personal efficacy Coping -Above results occur when controlling for other factors and previous levels of distress b/c of differences in coping strategies -Optimists -Exert more continuous effort b/c they are more confident about the future -Engage in more problem-focused coping (when the situation is controllable) and positive framing emotional-focused coping (when the situation is uncontrollable) -Try
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3690

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.