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Chapter 12

PSYC 3710 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Question Answering, Whole Language, National Reading Panel


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3710
Professor
Gregory Cameron
Chapter
12

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Reading Difficulties
Most people with an LD have difficulty reading. (80%)
About 1 million children from the US encounter reading problems during the first three years of
schooling.
o Reading problems in adults result from unresolved reading problems at a younger age.
Wait-and-Fail Method: not promptly addressing reading problems and waiting to do so at an older age.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development states:
Reading failure is not only an education problem but also a major public health problem.
Characteristics of children who are at risk of reading failure:
o They lack phonemic awareness (sensitivity to sounds of language)
o They are not familiar with the letters of the alphabet
o They may not understand the purpose of print
o They often have poor oral and verbal language skills with deficient vocabularies
They might also have cultural/linguistic barriers due to limited exposure to the English language.
Maximum treatment success requires early identification and early intervention.
Reading skills are necessary to succeed in all aspects of academics. (ie. You will perform poorly
in math if you cannot read the question)
o Good reading skills are necessary to get a degree and find (and maintain) a job.
Reading is not a natural process and requires careful instruction.
o It takes many years to master the skill.
o Readers must use a number of strategies to reorganize words.
o Students must learn to read so they can read to learn.
Reading Strategies in a General Education Classroom
This is the primary place where LD students who have reading difficulties receive their instruction.
Dyslexia
People affected with dyslexia find it difficult to recognize letters and words and to interpret
information that is present in print form.
These people may have strong mathematics or spatial skills

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What is Dyslexia? (Universal consensus):
1. It has a biological basis; caused by a disruption in the neural circuits of the brain
2. Dyslexia problems persist in adolescence and adulthood
3. Dyslexia has perceptual, cognitive, and language dimensions
4. Dyslexia leads to difficulties in many areas of life as the individual matures
5. Many individuals with dyslexia excel in other facets of life (Ie Jay Leno became a TV star)
People with dyslexia find ingenious ways of hiding the disability (Ie CEOs would hire people for reading
and writing)
Dyslexia has been proven to be caused by an abnormality in brain structure, a difference in brain
function, or genetic factors. For many years neurologists didn’t have evidence for this.

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Elements of Reading
The National Reading Panel created a list of reading components that readers must be competent in:
1. Phonemic awareness
2. Phonics and Word-Recognition Skills
3. Fluency
4. Vocabulary
5. Text comprehension
1. Phonemic Awareness
The ability to notice, think about, and work with individual sounds in spoken words.
Children need to understand how the sounds work in words before they can read
o They must understand that words are made of speech sounds (phonemes)
Phonological awareness: includes the ability to identify and manipulate larger parts of spoken
language (ie words, syllables, rhymes, and phonemes)
o Phonemic awareness is part of phonological awareness.
Phonological awareness focuses on children’s hearing and using the sounds of
language.
2. Phonics and Word-Recognition Skills
Word recognition is necessary before a reader can understand the meaning of the text. When readers
exert tons of effort into word recognition they have little processing capacity remaining for
comprehension.
Learning word recognition skills at an early age leads to wider reading abilities in school and out
of school
Reading a wide variety of material provides opportunities to increase one’s vocabulary, increase
a student’s interest in books, and foster general reading growth
Word-recognition procedures:
Phonics Sight words Context clues Structural analysis
*These procedures should only be used when an unknown words stops the reading process. Readers
usually use a couple of these clues together to try and recognize the unknown word.
** Students with LDs need instruction and practice in each of these to gain fluency of language.
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