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Chapter 6

PSYC 3800 Chapter 6: Chapter 6 summary

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

Chapter 6: Behavioural Views of Learning • Learning: occurs when experience (including practice) causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behaviour. o Deliberate/unintentional, conscious/unconscious, for better/for worse o Doesn’t include changes from maturation or from temporary things (illness, fatigue) • Behavioural learning theories: assumes that the outcome of learning is a change in behaviour Neuroscience of Behavioural Learning • Part of cerebellum involved in reflex learning • Brain systems associated with pleasure and pain experiences Early Explanations of Learning • Contiguity: whenever 2 or more sensations occur together often enough, they become associated o When only one occurs (stimulus), the other will be remembered (response) o Aristotle said he remembered things when they were similar, contrast, or contiguous CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: learning involuntary emotional/physiological responses (i.e.fear) AKA “respondents” • Stimulus elicits the response • Discovered 1920s by Pavlov training dogs ▪ Sound of a tuning fork (neutral stimulus) did not cause dog to salivate ▪ Feed (unconditioned stimulus) dog causing salivation (unconditioned response) ▪ Contiguous pairing of tuning fork and feeding dog ▪ Over time, dog salivates (conditioned response) when hears sound (conditioned stimulus) of tuning fork -because does not need the food to salivate anymore o Example: “white coat syndrome”: people’s blood pressure increases when tested in the doctor’s office OPERANT CONDITIONING: learning in which voluntary behaviour is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents • Discovered by BF Skinner who said many behaviours are operants (voluntary behaviour) • Follows relationship pattern: antecedent-behaviour-consequence o A consequence becomes an antecedent for the next sequence Types of consequences: 1. Reinforcement: Consequences that strengthen behaviour • Positive reinforcements produce a new stimulus (i.e. wearing a new outfit produces many compliments) • Negative reinforcement: action leads to avoiding or escaping an aversive stimulus (i.e. ringing sound in a car when you don’t do up the seatbelt- it stops when you do up seatbelt) 2. Punishment: decreases or suppresses behaviour • Presentation punishment: aversive stimulus appears after behaviour (i.e. reprimanding students) • Removal punishment: removing a pleasure stimulus (i.e. taking away TV) Reinforcement Schedules: (Table 6.1 pg 204) 1. Continuous: reinforcer after every appropriate response 2. intermittent: reinforcer after some responses 3. interval: based on amount of time between reinforcers ----- fixed (predictable) or 4. ratio: number of responses learners give between reinforcers ------ variable (unpredicatable) • Variable schedules best for encouraging persistence of response so that we don’t give up when reinforcement doesn’t meet our expectation • Gradually changing it until it is “lean” means kids can go long periods of time without reinforcements 3. Extinction: removal of reinforcement altogether i.e. not responding to child’s tantrum and eventually they stop Antecedents and Behavior Change • Stimulus control: capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents causing behaviour (i.e. stopping at a red light even if being chased by police) • Effective Instruction Delivery (EID): concise, clear and specific instructions are the most effective; Statements are better than questions; speak instructions near students; make eye contact • Cueing: providing a stimulus that sets up a desired behaviour, rather than reminders that lead to irritation or disappointment • Prompting: a reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue o i.e. learning to be a good peer tutor: working in pairs is the cue, giving a checklist of steps is the prompt Applied Behaviour Analysis: • applying behaviour principles to change behaviour (AKA behaviour modification) • ABAB often used in research (baseline measurement of behaviour, apply intervention, stop intervention and observe behaviour, reintroduce intervention) • Teachers: o Specify behaviour to change and the level it is at o Plan the intervention o Keep track of results Methods for Encouraging Behaviour: 1. Reinforce with teacher attention: • Praise good behaviour and ignore bad OR ignore bad and reward good immediately (differential reinforcement) o Problem is disruptive behaviours often persist or other students are providing the attention o Praise also needs to be sincere and be reinforcing the behaviour you want (not just all the time) 2. Selecting the reinforcer: • The Premak Principle: (Grandma’s Rule): A high frequency behaviour preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low frequency activity (less-preferred) o i.e. do what I want you to do first and then you can do what you want (work quietly and nd then work together on the 2 assignment) 3. Shaping: (Successive Approximations) • reinforcing progress instead of just the end correct result • final complex task must be broken down into steps- called task analysis o allows pinpointing where the difficulties are 4. Positive Practice: • students replace one behaviour with another until It becomes almost automatic o i.e. correcting a math problem right away • use instead of punishing student Handling Undesirable Behaviour 1. Negative Reinforcement: i.e. when supplies are all put away then the class can go out for recess • teacher ensures unpleasant situations improve when student behaviour improves o not to be confused with punishment!!- this involves removing a stimulus • student remains in control- they choose to perform behaviour • teacher should describe change in a positive way and don’t lie 2. Reprimand: • soft and calm, more effective than loud and public o reprimanding in front of class could increase behaviour- if student likes attention 3. Response Cost: • an infraction causes the student to lose something o i.e. first time might be given a warning, then next time would be a mark beside name 4. Social Isolation: (time out) • removing disruptive student from class for 5-10 min to sit alone in a boring room o be careful- if doesn’t help, don’t make it longer! Cautions about punishments: • not good enough- tells kid what to stop doing but not what to do • always accompany with
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