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Chapter 3

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

CHAPTER 3: SELF AND SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development Context:  The total setting or situation that surrounds ad interacts with a person or event. It includes internal and external circumstances and situations that interact with the individual’s thoughts, feeling, and actions to shape development and learning.  Influences the development of behaviors, beliefs, ad knowledge by providing resources, supports, incentives, punishments, expectations, teachers, models, and tools  Affects how actions are interpreted Bioecological Model:  Urie Bronfenbrenner  Theory describing the nested social and cultural contexts that shape development  Bio aspect: people bring their biological selves to the developmental process  Ecological part recognizes that the social contexts in which we develop are ecosystems because they are in constant interaction and influence each other  Every person develops within a microsystem, inside a mesosystem, embedded in an exosystem which are a part of the macrosystem of the culture  2 lessons for teachers o Influences in all social systems are reciprocal o Many dynamic forces that interact to create the context for individual development Microsystem  Persons immediate relationships and activities o Immediate, family, friends, teacher  Reciprocal Mesosystem  Set of interactions and relationships among all the elements of the microsystem o Family members interacting with each other or the teacher  Reciprocal Exosystem  Includes all the social settings that affect the child, even though the child is not a direct member of the systems. o Teachers relationship with administrators and the school board o Parents jobs o Community resources for health, employment or recreation o Religious affiliations Macrosystem:  Larger society o Its values, laws, conventions and traditions. Families  Variety of forms  Blended families o Parents, children and stepchildren merge into families through remarriage  Extended families o Parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins living in the same household or in close proximity so they can have daily contact  Parenting styles: ways of interacting and disciplining children 1. Authoritative: high warmth but exert firm control, clear standards, high expectations, rational an supportive willing to negotiate 2. Authoritarian: high control low warmth and responsiveness, firm limits, expect child to follow orders, no negotiation or explanation, harsh punitive 3. Permissive: warm but have little control, few rules or consequences, expect little in the way of mature behavior, parents view themselves as resources for children to use as they wish and not for shaping their child’s behavior 4. Rejecting/neglecting: low warm and low control, uninvolved, react harshly when child requests attention, problems of their own, little effort into parenting.  Parenting style result in different outcomes but not universal: socioeconomic status, culture, religion influences as well 1. Authoritative: less well in school, more hostile, less popular, lower level of self-control 2. Authoritarian: do well in school, happy with themselves 3. Permissive: immature, demanding 4. Rejecting/neglecting: insecure, non-compliant, aggressive, withdrawn  Culture and Parenting o Higher control and more authoritarian parenting best for African American and some Asian students, inner-city children o Differences in cultural values and in the danger level of urban neighborhoods may make tighter parenting control appropriate  Attachment and Parenting styles o Attachment: forming an emotional bond with another person, initially a parent or family member o Quality of attachment bond impacts future relationships o Secure attachments= child feels more confident to explore their world, do better academically o Insecure/disorganized= fearful, sad, anxious, rejection or angry interactions with caregiver. o Some research shows authoritarian related to forming insecure attachments but many factors influence effects of parenting styles o Children with secure attachments less dependent on teachers  Divorce o Destructive conflict in any type of family undermines the well-being of parents and children o Stressful o Children may develop problems in school, changes in attendance, weight, sleeping etc o Some children respond with maturing, increases responsibility and coping skills Peers  Peer Groups o Social groups formed on the basis of shared interests an values, similar characteristics o Cliques: smaller friendship groups o Crowds: less intimate, more loosely organized, members may or may not interact with one another- Affiliation with crowds provide a sense of identity within a larger social structure “jock” crowd or “popular” crowd. o Can be formal ex girl guides o Teaches how to cooperate, control negative emotions an hostile impulses, provide support, powerful influence on development  Peer Cultures o Groups of children or adolescents with their own rules and norms, particularly about such things as dress, appearance, music, language, social values and behavior.  Friendships o Close, mutual and dyadic relationship o Reciprocity and equality o Stable, supportive friendships with friends who are socially competent and mature enhances social development and kids show improvements academically  Who is likely to have problems with peers? o New students who are physically, intellectually, ethnically, racially, economically or linguistically different o Aggressive, withdrawn, ADHD o Classroom context matters o If too different from norm  Peer Aggression o Instrumental aggression: strong actions aimed at claiming an object, place or privilege- not intended to harm, but may lead to harm.  Shoving to get first in line  Snatching a toy o Hostile aggression: bold, direct action that is intended to hurt someone else; unprovoked attack. Can be overt aggression or relational aggression  Overt aggression: involves physical attack  Relational aggression: involves verbal attacks and other actions meant to harm social relationships. o Role modeling and family functioning impact child aggression  Watching violent TV shows  Family violence & harsh punishment  Bullying o Form of social interaction in which the more dominant individual exhibits aggressive behavior that is intended to cause distress or harm to a less dominant individual o Relational forms of aggression, physical forms, virtual forms (internet), face-to-face interactions  Relational aggression o Insult, gossip, exclusion, taunts o Aka social aggression o Older children tend to use relational aggression over overt aggression o Girls tend to use relational over overt and boys use both  Victims o Passive victims: anxious, physical weak, unpopular, low self-esteems, do not provoke attacks and do little to defend themself. o Provocative victims: have own set of problems that draw negative attention to them. Physically stronger than passive victims and more actively engaged in incidents that lead to bullying o Bully/victim: provoke bullying in others and initiate aggressive acts. o Obesity, no peers, remedial education, disabilities increase risk for being bullied o Consequences?  Strong dislike for school, distrust peers, difficulty making friends  Anxiety, embarrassment, guilt, loneliness, low self-esteem  Sleep, speech, panic attacks, OCD, self-mutilation, delay in mental, socio-economical and physical development. PTSD  Bystanders o Witness bullying behavior and may or may not do anything about it.  Cyber bullying o Using internet to bully Teachers  Academic and Personal caring (Teachers) o Academic caring: setting high but reasonable expectations and helping students reach goals o Personal caring: being patient, respectful, willing to listen and interested in students issues and personal problems Teachers & child abuse  Types o Physical, sexual, neglect, emotional harm, exposure to family violence  Many provinces legally require teachers to report any reason to believe abuse is occurring. Physical Development Physical & Motor Development  Early years o Gross motor & fine motor skills improve o Centre of gravity moves lower-run, jump, climb, hop o Preference for left or right hand  The elementary school years o Tremendous variation o Master sports/games  Adolescent o Puberty: sexual maturity o Sex differences obvious, more pronounced o Effects on individual identity o Boys: maturing early advantage in sports, fit stereotype of ideal male, higher social status, one study found risk depression, engage in more delinquent behavior, mature late: more difficult time but more creative, tolerant and perceptive o Girls: opposite, maturing ahead=disadvantage. Being larger not valued in many cultures. Associated with depression, anxiety, eating disorders. Play, Recess and Physical Activity Play  Pruning brain synapses  Essential to cognitive development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social and emotional well-being of children and youth Recess  Reduces tension that comes with having to achieve or needing to learn  Develop skills to see others point of view-cooperation, helping, sharing, solving problems  Development of perceptual abilities may suffer when so much of experiences is through tv, computer, books, worksheets (only require 2 senses). The sense of smell, touch, taste and the sense of motion through space are modes of learning  Asian countries more recess breaks and consistently outperform US students Challenges in Physical Development Childhood Overweight & Obesity  BMI: weight in relation to height  Playing negatively affected  Targets for teasing Eating disorders  Bulimia & anorexia nervosa  Occurs most often during puberty adolescents wish to “measure up” The Brain and Adolescent Development  Changes in the brain increase students computational skills and ability to control behavior in low and high stress situations  Purposeful and organized control impulsive behavior  Appear to need more intense emotional stimulation o Teachers take advantage of this by helping devote energy to politics, environment or social causes  Changes also affect sleep: need 9hrs, biological clocks reset: difficult to fall asleep before midnight. Self-Concept and Identity Erikson: Stages of Individual Development  Psychosocial theory- describing the relation of individuals emotional needs to the social environment.  Emphasized the emergence of self, the search for identity, the individual’s relationships with others, and the role of culture throughout life.  8 Stages o Each with goals, concerns, accomplishments, and dangers o Interdependent: accomplishment at later stages depend on how conflicts are resolved in earlier years o Developmental crisis at each stage: a specific conflict whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage. Way it is resolved has a lasting effect on the person’s self image and views of society Stage Approx. Age Important event Description 1. Basic trust vs. Birth to 12- Feeding The infant must first form a loving, Basic mistrust 18m trusting relationship with the caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. 18m-3yr Toilet Training The childs energies are directed Shame & Doubt toward the development of physical skills, including walking, grasping and controlling the sphincter. The child learns to control but many develop shame and doubt if not handled well 3. Initiative vs. 3-6 yrs Ind
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