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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3800 (51)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3800
Professor
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

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CHAPTER 5 CULTURE AND DIVERSITYCulture and Group MembershipCulture knowledge rules traditions attitudes and values that guide behaviour in a particular group of people Group creates a culture a program for living and communicates the culture to members People are members of groups not cultureGroups regional ethnic religious racial gender social class or other linesEach of us is a member of many groups Influences are incompatible or contradictory Ex If you are a feminist but also a Roman Catholic you have may trouble reconciling with two different cultures beliefs about ordination of women as priestsCultures differ in rules for conducting interpersonal relationships for ex In some groups listeners give a slight affirmative nod of head and an occasional uh huh to indicate they are listening carefullyBut members of other cultures listen without giving acknowledgement or with eyes down as sign of respect Cultural influence are widespread and pervasive Some psychologists suggest culture defines intelligenceSymptoms of psychological disorders are even affected by cultures Cautions about Interpreting Cultural Differences Two cautions are necessary 1 We will consider social class ethnicity and gender separately 2 Group membership is not destinyCultural Conflicts and Compatibilities Differences between cultures may be very obvious such as holiday customs or dress or they may be subtle such as how to get your turn in conversations Cultural conflicts are usually below the surface differencesDangers in Stereotyping Compared to other ethnic groups Asian students in North America have the highest graduation rates from high school college and graduate school so they are labelled as model minorities Dangers of stereotyping Asian students as quiet hardworking and passive This practice tends to reinforce conformity and stifle creativity ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES Social Class and SES Socioeconomic Status SES relative standing in the society based on income power background and prestige No single measure not even income is an effective measure of SES Poverty and School Achievement Rate of child and family poverty has declined slightly over past two decades from approx 12 95 Families in highest income bracket earn more than 12 times what families in the lowest income bracket earn Average correlation between SES and school achievement is moderate about 30 High SES students of all ethnic groups show higher average levels of achievement and stay in school longer than low SES students Effects of low socioeconomic status that explain lower school achievementHeath Environment and StressNegative effects of poverty begin even before a child is born Families in poverty have less access to good prenatal and infant health care and nutrition Poor mothers and adolescent mothers are more likely to have premature babies and prematurity is associated with many cognitive and learning problemsChildren in poverty are more likely to be exposed to both legal drugs and illegal drugs Children whose mothers take drugs during pregnancy can have problems with organization attention and language skills Children in poverty experience higher levels of stress hormones than children in middle class or wealthy familiesPoor children are twice more likely to suffer from lead poisoning which is associated with lower school achievementLow Expectations Low Self EsteemLow expectations become institutionalized and educational resources provided are inadequate Children come to believe that they arent good at school workLow expectations along with lower quality educational experience can lead to sense of helplessness Peer Influences and Resistance CulturesResistance Culture Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt behaviours and attitudes of majority culture Making it in school means selling out and trying to act middle class In order to maintain identity and status low SES students must reject behaviour that would make them successful in school studying cooperating with teachers even coming to classHome Environment and ResourcesFamilies in poverty seldom have access to high quality preschool care for young childrenPoor children read less have less access to books libraries trips and museums
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