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Chapter 11

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

CHAPTER 11- MOTIVATION IN LEARNING AND TEACHING What is motivation? - Motivation: an internal state that arouses, directs and maintains behaviours o What choices do people make about their behavior? o How long does it take to get started? o What is the intensity or level of involvement in the chosen activity? o What causes a person ot persist or to give up? o What is the person thinking and feeling while engaged in the activity? - All students present a different motivational challenge, but teachers are expected to motivate and teach the entire class Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation - Intrinsic: motivation associated with activities that their own reward o the activity itself is satisfying and rewarding - Extrinsic: motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishment o When we are - Some explanations of motivation rely on internal, personal factors such as needs, interests, and curiosity - Other explanations point to external, environmental factors- rewards, social pressure, punishment - The difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is the locus of causality or the location (external or internal) of the cause of behavior - Our activities may fall along a continuum from fully self determined (intrinsic) to fully determined (extrinsic) o A person can internalize an external cause—students may choose to work hard on activities that they don‘t like because they know the activities will help them reach a goal - Our activities may be caused by some intrinsic reasons, ad some extrinsic reasons at the same time o It can be hard to motivate children completely intrinsically Five General approaches to motivation  Behavioral approaches to motivation: an understating of student motivation begins with a careful analysis of the incentives and rewards in the classroom o A reward is an attractive object in even supplied as a consequence of a particular behavior o An incentive is an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior (the promise of an A+) o If we are consistently reinforced for certain behaviours, we may develop habits or tendencies to act in a certain ways o Providing students with grades, stars, stickers, and other reinforcers for learning- or demerits for misbehavior- is an attempt to motivate students by extrinsic means of incenstives, rewards and punishments o Extrinsic motivation  Humanistic Approaches to motivation o Humanistic interpretations of motivation emphasize such intrinsic sources of motivation as a person‘s needs for ‗self- actualization,‖ the inborn ―actualizing tendency,‖ or the need for ―self-determination‖ o So, to motivate, means to encourage peoples inner resources—their sense of competence, self-esteem, autonomy, and self actualization o Intrinsic motivation  Cognitive approaches to motivation o In the cognitive perspective, people are active and curious, in search of information to solve personally relevant problems o In response to behavioral views on motivation--- believe that behavior is determined by our thinking, not simply by whether we have been rewarded or punished for the behavior in the past o Behavior is initiated and regulated by plans, goals, schemas, expectations and attributions o Intrinsic motivation  Social cognitive theories o Social cognitive theories of motivation are integrations of behavioral and cognitive approaches o Take into account the consequences of behavior and the impact of individual beliefs and expectations o Expectancy X value theories: motivation is seen as the product of two main forces: the individual‘s expectation of reaching a goal and the value of that goal to him or her o Motivation is a product of these two forces, because if either factor is zero, no motivation exists to work toward the goal  Need expectation and value o Intrinsic and extrinsic  Sociocultural conceptions of motivation o Emphasizes participation in communities of practice o People engage activities to maintain their identities and their interpersonal relations within the community o Students are motivated to learn, if they are members of a community that value learning o We start claiming an identity with certain groups (for example when we see ourselves as soccer players, or sculptors, or engineers, or teachers) o When building an identity in the group, we move from Legitimate peripheral participation to central participation. o Legitimate peripheral participation: means beginners are genuinely involved in the work of the group, even if their abilities are undeveloped and their contributions are small  People are motivated to learn the values of pratices of the community to maintain their identity as community members o Intrinsic motivation Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:  Maslow said that humans have a hierarchy of needs ranging from lower-level needs for survival and safety to higher- level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization  Self actualization: is Maslow‘s term for self fulfillment, the realization of personal potential  Maslow called the four lower level needs (survival, safety, belonging, and self-esteem) deficiency needs o When these needs are satisfied, the motivation for fulfilling them decreases  The higher level needs (intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, and finally self-actualization) are called being needs o When these needs are met, a person‘s motivation does not cease; instead, it increases to seek futher fulfillment  Maslow‘s theory has been critized because people do not always appear to behave as the theory would predict o We often move back and forth among different types of needs and may even be motivated by many needs at the same time  But, this theory is still helpful hen looking a kids. A child whose feelings of safety and sense of belonging are being threaten because of divorce, may have little interest in learning  If a school is a fearful place, then students and teachers will be more concerned about safety then learning and teaching Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness - This theory says that we all need to feel competent and capale in our interactions in the world, to have some choices and sense of control over our lives, and to be connected to others- to belong to a social group. - Need for autonomy: is central to self determination because it represents the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions. o People want to have authority in their lives o We often struggle against pressures from external control such as the rules, schedules, deadlines, orders, and limits imposed by others - Self-determination in the classroom o Classrooms that support student‘s self determination are associated with greater student interest and curiosity, sense of competence, creativity, conceptual learning and preference for challenge o When students are able to make choices, they are more likely to believe that their work is important or fun so they internalize educational goals o Controlling school environments improve performance only on rote recall tasks  When students are presuured to perform, they seek the quickiest, easiest solutions o However, both students and parents prefer more controlling teachers, even though they learn more when their teachers support autonomy - Information and control o Many things happen at school- students are praised, criticized, reminded of deadlines, assigned grades, given choices, lectured about rules o Cognitive evaluation theory- explains how these events can influence students‘ intrinsic motivation by affecting their sense of self-determination and competence  According to this theory, all events have 2 aspects. Controlling and informational  If an event is highly controlling (pressures students to act a certain way), then students will experience less control and their intrinsic motivation will be diminished  If the event provides information that increases a students‘ sense of competence, then intrinsic motivation will increase  For example—a teacher praises a student by saying ―good for you, you got an A because you finally followed my instructions correctly‖  This is a highly controlling statement, giving credit to the teacher and undermining the students sense of self- determination and intrinsic motivation  If the teacher said ―good for you, your understanding of the author‘s use of metaphors has improved greatly‖  This statement provides info about the students growing competence, and should increase the intrinsic motivation - The need for relatedness o The desire to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with others o When teachers and parents show that they care about students, the students will show high intrinsic motivation o At risk students need caring teachers even more o Emotional and physical problems are more common among people who lack social relationships Needs: Lessons for teachers - Students need to be appropriately challenged they also benefit from ways of watching their competence grow (perhaps through self monitoring systems or portfolios) - Students need to feel that people in school care about them and can be trusted - A goal is an outcome or attainment that an individual is striving to accomplish - When students try to get a better average, they are involved in goal-directed behavior - Goals motivate people to get from their current coniditon (where they are) to their ideal condition (where they want to be) - There are four main reaslons why goal setting improves performance o 1. Direct our attention to the task at hand and away from distraction o 2. Energize effort- the harder the goal, the more effort put into the goal o 3. Increase persistence-we are less likely to give up when we have a goal o 4. Promote the development of new knowledge and strategies when old strategies fall short. Types of Goals and Goal orientation - The types of goals we set, influence the amount of motivation we have to reach them - Goals that are specific, moderately difficult, and short term – more likely to be reached - Four achievement goal orientations in school o Goal orientations are patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school  Includes why we pursue goals and the standards we use to evaluate progress towards the goals o There are four main goal orientations: mastery (learning), performance ( looking good), work-avoidance, and social o The most common distinction is between mastery goals (also called task goals or learning goals) and performance goals ( also called ability goals or ego goals) o A mastery goal is a personal intention to improve abilities to learn , no matter how performance suffers  When students set mastery goals, they are more investeed. They seek challenges, persist through difficulties and feel better about their work  They aren‘t worried about how they ‗measure up‘ to other students  These students are called task involved learners  more likely to seek help and use deeper cognitive processing o a people who set performance goals care about demonstrating their abilities to others  may focus on getting good test scores and grades and beating other students  their evaluation by others, not what they learn, is what matters  students who set these goals are called ego-involved learners because they are preoccupied with themselves  they may cheat or use short cuts to complete tasks, work hard only on graded assignments, hide papers with low grades, choose easy tasks etc - Are performance goals always bad? o Performance goals are not always bad and may not always be detrimental to learning o Some research suggests that both mastery and performance goals are associated with using active learning strategies and high self- efficacy o Students can puruse mastery and performance goals at the same time o To account for these finds, psychologists have added the distinction of approach/avoidance  Students may be movitated to either approach mastery or avoid misunderstanding  They may approach performance or avoid looking dumb  Students who fear misunderstanding (mastery avoidance) may be perfectionist—focused on getting it exactly right  Students who avoid looking dumb (performance avoidance) may adopt defensive, failture-avoiding strategies—they pretend not to care, they make a show of ‗not really trying‘ or they cheat o Performance-approach goals can turn into performance-avoidance gals if students are not successful in looking smart or winning  The path might lead from performance approach (trying to win), to performance avoidance (saving face and trying not to look dumb), to learned helplessness (I give up) - Beyond mastery and performance o Some students just want to finish fast or avoid work altogether o Work-avoidant learners- students who feel successful when they don‘t have to try hard, or when they work is easy and they can goof off o social goals become more important as students get older, as they move towards adolescence, because their social networks change to include more peers  non academic activities such as athletics, dating, hanging out all compete with school work  some social goals help, but others hinder, learning o we talk about goals in separate catergories but students can and do pursue several goals at once - goals in social context o the people in the situation socially construct the mearning of an activity o Goals set for the activity will reflect the participants‘ understanding of ‗what they are doing‖ o So in a highly competitive classroom environment, students might be more likely to adopt performance goals o In supportive, learner centered classrooms, even students with lower self efficacy might be encouraged to aim for higher mastery goals o Goals are constrcted as part of the triadic reciprocal interaction of person, environment and behavior Feedback, Goal Framing and Goal Acceptance - Three additional factors make goal setting in the classroom effective - Feedback: feedback that emphasizes process is the most effective o When feedback highlights accomplishments, the subjects self confidence, analytical thinking and performance are enhanced - Goal framing: activities or assignments can be explained or framed as helping students reach intrinsic goals or activities can be portayed as helping students reach extrinsic goals o when activities are linked to students‘ intrinsic goals students have deeper understanding - goal acceptance--- the relationship between higher goals and better performance is strongest when people are committed to the goals o if students reject goals set by others or refuse to set their own goals, then their motivation will sufferr o generally students are more willing to commit to the goals of others if the goals seem realistic, reasonably difficult and meaningful and if good reasons are given for the value of the goals by connecting activities to students‘ intrinsic interests Goals: Lessons for teachers - students are more likely to work toward goals tat are clear, specific, reasonable, moderately challenging and attainable over short period of time - if teachers focus on high grades and competition, they may encourage students to set performance goals o this can undermine their ability to learn and become task-involved and set them on a path towards alientation from learning in school and learned helplessness - students are unlikely to stick with tasks or to respond well to teachers who make them feel insecure or incompetent Beliefs about knowing: epistemological beliefs - what students believe about knowledge and learning (their epistemological beliefs) will influence their motivational and the kinds of strategies that they use - there are several dimensions of epistemological beliefs o structure of knowledge o stability of knowledge o ability to learn o speed of learning o nature of learning - students beliefs about knowing and learning affect their use of learning strategies - grade 4 and 6 students who believed that learning is ‗understanding‘ processed science texts more deeply than students who believed that learning is ‗reproducing facts‘ beliefs about ability - some of the most powerful beliefs affecting motivation in school are about ability - adults tend to adopt one of two basic concepts of ability o entity view of ability assumes that ability is a stable, uncontrollable trait  so, according to this view, some people have more ability than others o incremental view of ability suggests that ability is unstable and controllable - young kids tend to hold an incremental view of ability- they belief that effort is the same as ability - around age 11/12 children can differientiate among effort, ability, and performance - students who hold an entity view of intelligence tend to set performance goals to avoid looking bad in the eyes of others o students with learning disabilities are more likely to hold an entity view - teachers who hold entiry views are quicker to form judgments about students and slower to modify their opinions when confronted with contradictory evidence - teachers who hold incremental views, in contrast, tend to set mastery goals and to seek situations in which students can improve their skills, because improvement means getting smarter Belief about causes and control: Attribution theory - one well known explanation of motivation begins with the assumption that we try to make sense of our own behavior and the behavior of others by searching for explanations and cause - attribution theories of motivation describe how the individuals explanations, justifications, and excuses about him or herself or others influence motivation - most of the attributed causes for successes or failures can be characterized in terms of three dimensions o 1. Locus- location of the cause—internal/external o 2. Stability—whether the cause of the event is the same across time and in different situations o 3. Controllability--- whether the person can control the cause - Every cause for success or failure can be catergorized in terms of these three dimensions o For example, luck is external (locus), unstable (stability) and uncontrollable (controllable) - These three dimensions have implication for motivation because they affect expectations about the future o The stability dimension seems to be related to expectations of the future o The inter
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