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Chapter 12

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

CHAPTER 12 By the end of this chapter you should be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are the special managerial demands of classrooms and how do they related to the needs of students of different ages? 2. How will you establish a list of rules and procedures for a class? 3. How will you arrange the physical environment of your classroom to fit your learning goals and teaching methods 4. How will you manage computers in your classroom to fit your learning goals and teaching methods? 5. What are Kounin’s suggestions for preventing management problems 6. How would you prevent problems by building connections with students? 7. What are two different approaches for dealing with a conflict between teacher and student? The Need for Organization:  classroom management is strongly correlated with student achievement  classrooms are multidimensional, fast paced, unpredictable, public, and have histories (meaning a particular teacher’s or student’s actions depends in part on what happened before A) The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation  classrooms are like groups – requires cooperation of all members  getting student cooperation is very complex – much more so than simply dealing effectively with misbehaviour: o planning activities, having materials ready, making appropriate behavioral and academic demands, giving clear signals, accomplishing transitions smoothly  gaining cooperation in kindergarten is different than doing so in grade 12 – each developmental stage provides its own challenges to educators and entails new responsibilities B) The Goals of Classroom Management Classroom management: maintain a positive, productive learning environment BUT order for its own sake is an empty goal – unethical to use class management techniques just to keep students docile and quiet 1. Access to Learning a. First rule of classroom management – giving all students access to learning b. Each classroom has its own rules for participation (either clearly stated, or implicit and unstated or unconscious!) c. Participation structure: rules defining who, what, when, to whom and how they talk d. When such rules do not echo a child’s home interactions = him or her being reluctant to participate or inappropriate participations occur e. Must make sure that everyone knows HOW to participate (educator’s role – KEY is awareness – many variables could be at root of a child’s behaviour) f. Must be sensitive and aware of participation structures 2. More Time for Learning: a. Misconception about actual time allotted for teaching = in reality there really much time is lost to disruptions, rough transitions, late starts, interruptions b. One important goal of classroom management = expand the sheer number of minutes allocated to learning = allocated time c. Simply making enough time for learning = insufficient – need more engaging time and time on task (time spent actively involved in specific learning task. d. Academic learning time: different than time on task because time doesn’t guarantee learning. When students are working with a high rate of success (really learning and understanding) – call time spent academic learning 3. Management rdr Self-Management a. 3 goal of any management system b. help students become better able to manage themselves c. not so much demanding obedience, but rather teaching self-regulation and self-control = fundamental shift in classroom management today d. students develop sense of responsibility – ability to fulfill their own needs without interfering with rights and needs of others e. how develop self control: i. making choices ii. collaborating to learn iii. mediating disputes and making peace iv. developing trusting relationships with teachers and classmates f. requires extra time – BUT important investment Creating a Positive Learning Environment:  all plans for motivating students to learn are steps towards preventing problems A) Some Research Results  research results and suggestions for improvement – are listed from here on in  observations gathered from studies on classrooms from beginning to end of school year – correlations between effective management methods and high achieving classrooms were made (findings listed below) B) Routines and Rules Required  Different challenges educators face based on age of children they teach (elementary vs. high school)  Effective procedures and rules needed for both C) Planning Spaces for Learning 1. Procedures and routines HELP a lot – not always written down - they should be established in following areas: o Administrative routines o Student movement o Housekeeping o Routines for accomplishing lessons o Interactions between teacher and student o Talk among students 2. Rules a. Often written down and posted b. Do and don’ts of classroom life c. Rules should be consistent with school rules AND keep with principles of learning d. Studies have demonstrated that students benefit when they explain work to peers (learn as they teach) e. Rules should be positive and observable f. Have a few general rules that cover many specifics is BETTER than listing all dos and don’ts (unless specific thing is forbidden – smoking, etc.) 3. Rules of Elementary Schools: a. Respect and be polite to all people: give examples b. Be prompt and prepared: includes beginning of day and transitions between activities c. Listen quietly while others are speaking d. Obey all school rules e. Whatever the rule – students need to be taught the behaviour that the rule includes and excludes – use examples, + practice and discussion f. Prevent confusion by making signs 4. Rules for Secondary school: a. Bring all needed materials to class b. Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings c. Respect and be polite to all people d. Listen and stay seated while someone else is speaking e. Obey all rules – study demonstrated that rules about respecting others were correlated with high numbers of student participation in discussions 5. Consequences a. What to do when student breaks rules/procedures b. Many times – logical to go back and do it right c. Use natural and logical consequences to support social and emotional development: i. Separate the deed from the doer – problem is behaviour not student ii. Emphasize to student that they have the power to choose their actions and thus avoid losing control iii. Encourage student reflection, self-evaluation, and problem solving – avoid teacher lecturing iv. Help students identify and give rationale for what they could do differently next time in a similar situation d. MAIN point = decisions about penalties and rewards must be made early on, so students know before they break a rule or use the wrong procedure what this will mean for them e. See table 12.1 for a student list of seven categories of consequences for students 6. Who sets the rules and consequences? a. One way a particular teacher did was create a “Bill of Rights” for students and teachers (See table 12.2) – in more difficult classes he and his students had to establish some “laws” to protect student’s rights b. Students should understand that rules are developed so that everyone can work and learn together c. IF you are going to use students to make rules, might have to wait until you build a sense of community with them – students need to trust the teacher and situation 7. Physical spaces and environment: a. Should be inviting and support activities planned for classroom b. Respect inhabitants of the space c. Tools needed should be readily available d. Two ways to organize space: personal territory, interest areas 8. Personal Territories: a. Action zone: often class participation is localized – to help spread it around, teachers move around the room when possible, establish eye contact, with and direct questions to students seated far away, AND vary the setting so that some students aren’t always localized to back b. Horizontal rows: i. Useful for independent seatwork, teacher, student and media presentations ii. Encourage student focus on presenter + simplify housekeeping iii. Work easily done in pairs iv. BUT  poor arrangement for large-group discussion c. Clusters of 4 and circle arrangements bet for student interaction i. But poor for whole-group presentations, and may make class management more difficult d. Fishbowl or stack, special formation i. Students sit close together or near focus of attention ii. ONLY temporary for short periods of time – can be uncomfortable, causing discipline problems iii. Useful for feeling of group cohesion + helpful when teacher wants students to watch a demonstration 9. Interest Areas: a. Influences the way areas are used by students b. See guidelines box page 431 D) Planning for Computer Uses:  Using computers brings challenges  Used constructively for MASS benefits – connect to powerful knowledge bases around the world; to act as tools for writing, drawing, calculating, designing, to stimulate scientific experiments or life in other times and places, etc. publish work, make presentations, keep track of appointments, assignments, or grades  Table 12.4 page 433 – Summary of strategies for managing computer labs E) Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class  How do effective teachers gain student’s cooperation in first critical days or weeks? 1. Effective Managers for Elementary Students: a. Very first day was well organized b. Name tags were ready c. Something interesting and fun for each child to do right away d. Material set up e. Teachers ha planned carefully to avoid any last minute tasks that might take them away from their students f. Dealt with pressing concerns first g. Workable and easily understood set of rules and taught the students the most important rules right away – with LOTS of examples, explanations and practice h. Throughout first week – did much of same teaching rules, procedures – using guided practice and/or reward i. Most taught students to respond to bell / some other signal to gain their attention j. Worked with whole on enjoyable academic activities k. Did NOT rush to get students into small groups or to get started in readers l. Whole-class work gave teachers a better opportunity to continue monitoring all students learn gin of rules ns procedures – misbehaviour was stopped QUICKLY and FIRMLY but NOT harshly 2. Poorly managed classrooms? a. First weeks very different – rules were not workable – they were either too vague or very complicated b. Neither positive nor negative behaviour had any clear, consistent consequences c. After students broke a rule, ineffective teachers might give a vague criticism or issue a warning, but not follow through with the threatened consequence d. Procedures varied from day to day, and were never taught or practiced e. Spent too much time on irrelevant procedures, ignored the important ones f. Ineffective teachers often left the room g. Many became absorbed in paper work or in helping just one student h. Not made plans for how to deal with late-arriving students or other interruptions 3. Effective managers for secondary students: a. Differences between effective and ineffective teachers remained mostly same b. Effective teachers: i. Focus on establishing rules, procedures, explanations ii. Standards for academic work and class behavior clearly communicated to students and consistently enforced during first weeks of class iii. Student behaviour closely monitors and infractions of rules are dealt with quickly iv. Careful follow each students progress so that students cannot avoid work without facing consequences c. Effective descriptions above seem grim – BUT they weren’t – they smiled and joked more with students (much more possible when class is cooperative) Creating a Learning Community  Historically, north American schools have emphasized regulating student’s behaviour through rules, not relationships  new shift towards relationships A) Classroom Community;  3 C’s for developing kind and mutually trusting community @ Blackburn elementary (school in BC that focuses more on regulating through relationships) o cooperative community o constructive conflict resolution – essential in community because conflicts are inevitable and even necessary for learning  reflecting Piaget’s research on conceptual change – learning requires cognitive conflict – see page 330 table 9.10: ideas about how to structure constructive conflicts o civic values: understandings and beliefs that hold the community together  values learned through direct teaching, modeling, literature, group discussions, and the sharing of concerns  example: some teachers use “concern box” – students can put written concerns and comments – it is opened weekly at a class meeting and the concerns are discussed  Heart of community = idea of positive interdependence – individuals working together to achieve mutual goals B) Getting Started on Community  Creating health school communities like blakeburn  NOT come easy/automatically  It involves input several different levels to develop a philosophy and participation structures that will foster self-control and social responsibility on the part of students  Requires more than implementation of prepackaged programs at a scheduled time in the day, it requires “living the principles of inclusion and responsibility… all day, every day” Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning A) Encouraging Engagement  Format of lesson affects student involvement  Increases in teacher supervision, increases student’s engaged time in learning  Work that provides students with continuous cues for what to do next  created greater student involvement  Clear steps  likely to be more absorbing (one step leads to the next)  When students tend to have all the materials needed for task – tend to stay involved  The higher the connection a task has with real life = more engagement from students  When tasks are more challenging + students interests are incorporated = higher involvement as well  Guidelines box – page 436 – suggesting for well planned systems for encouraging students to manage their work – based on findings B) Prevention Is the Best Medicine  Prevention is best medicine: o Get students interested o Avoid confusion o Keep activities moving  Effective classroom teachers were observed to have 4 universal properties: o “withitness” o overlapping activities o group focusing o movement engagement 1. “withitness” a. means communicating to students that you are aware of everything that is happening in the classroom, that you aren’t missing anything “eyes at back of heads” b. avoid becoming absorbed in only 1 or 2 students – encourages others to wander c. always scanning the room, making eye contact with individual students, so that the students know they are being monitored d. prevent minor disruptions form becoming major  know who instigated a problem – make sure that the right people are dealt with: avoid Timing Errors (waiting too long before intervening), target errors (blaming the wrong student – letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for their behaviour) e. when faced with 2 simultaneous problems, deal with more severe one first 2. Overlapping and Group Focus: a. Overlapping – keeping track of and supervising several activities simultaneously b. Group focus – keeping as many students as possible involved in appropriate class activities and AVOID narrowing in on just one or two students c. All students have something to do – teachers’ responsibility to ensure that all students are involved and that everyone understands the material 3. Movement Management: a. Means keeping lessons and group moving at an appropriate pace – smooth transitions and variety b. Avoid abrupt transitions – cause confusion and chaos c. Avoid slowdown – taking too much time to start a new activity – give too many directions d. Problems also arise when teachers have students work one at a time while the rest of the class waits and watches 4. Student Social Skills as Prevention: a. When students lack social and emotional skills such as being able to share materials, read the intentions of others, or handle frustration, classroom management problems often follow b. Efforts to teach social and emotional self-regulation are steps for preventing management problems c. Short term = teachers can teach these skills, then give students feedback and practice using them in a vareity of settings d. Long term = teachers help to change attitudes that value aggression over cooperation and compromise C) Caring Relationships: Connections With School:  This section focuses on research that specifically examines what helps students, particularly adolescents, feel connected in school 1. All
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