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Chapter 7

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PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

CHAPTER 7: A GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE COGNITIVE VIEW OF LEARNING Elements of the Cognitive Perspective - Knowledge is learned and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible - Both behavioral and cognitive theorists believe that reinforcement is important o Behaviorists say that reinforcement strengthens responses o Cognitive theorists see reinforcement as a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed - What we already know determines to a great extent what we will pay attention to, perceive, learn, remember and forget - Learning changes communication among neurons and these changes enable children to engage in complex tasks such as integrating past and present experiences by approximately age 7 Cognitive View of Memory - The Gestalt principles are valid explanations of certain aspects of perception - There are two other explanations for information processing o Feature Analysis/ Bottom Up Processing  The stimulus must be analyzed into features or components and assembled into meaningful patterns o Top Down Processing  Based on knowledge and expectation - Working memory is both a short term storage and processing guided by the central executive o The workbench of conscious thought o To keep information activated in the working memory for longer than 20 seconds people use maintenance rehearsal (mentally repeating) and elaborative rehearsal (making connections with knowledge from long term memory) - Cognitive load refers to the volume of cognitive resources including perception, attention, and memory necessary to perform a task o If cognitive load is high, it can decrease or even inhibit one’s ability to perform a task Long Term Memory - Declarative knowledge is knowledge that can be declared usually in words or other symbols o “Knowing that” something is the case - Procedural knowledge is “knowing how” to do something- it must be demonstrated - Conditional knowledge is “knowing when and why” to apply your declarative and procedural knowledge - Memories
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