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Chapter 13

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3800
Professor
Jen Lasenby- Lessard
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 13 – Teaching Every Student Research on Teaching Characteristics of Effective Teachers  Clarity and Organization o Rosenshine and Furst (1973) - clarity was most promising teacher behaviour for future research on effective teaching o Provide clear presentations and explanations have students who learn more and who rate teachers better o Teachers with more knowledge of subject tend to be less vague in explanations to class = better learning for students  Warmth and Enthusiasm o Teacher traits most strongly related to students liking the teacher and class in general o Teachers who demonstrate enthusiasm have students who are more attentive and involved  Teachers’ Knowledge o High school students tend to learn more math from teachers with significant education in math o Teachers who know more facts about the subject make clearer presentations and recognize student difficulties Knowledge for Teaching  Expert teachers have elaborate systems of knowledge for understanding problems in teaching. Expert teachers know: o Academic subjects they teach – their content knowledge is deep and interconnected o General teaching strategies that apply in all subject (such as principles of classroom management, effective teaching, and evaluation that you will discover in this book) o Curriculum materials and programs appropriate for subject and grade level o Subject0soecific knowledge for teaching: special ways of teaching certain students and particular concepts, such as the best ways to explain negative numbers to lower-ability students o Characteristics and cultural backgrounds of learners o Settings in which students learn – pairs, small groups, teams, classes, schools, and the community o Goals and purposes of teaching The First Step: Planning  Planning influences what students will learn, since planning transforms the available time and curriculum materials into activities, assignments, and tasks for students – time is the essence of planning!  Teachers engage in several levels of planning – by the year, term, unit, week, and day, All levels must be coordinated  Plans reduce, but do not eliminate, uncertainty in teaching, Even the best plans cannot, and should not, control everything that happens in class – must allow flexibility o Evidence – when teachers overplan, their students do not learn as much as students whose teachers are flexible  To plan creatively and flexibly, teachers need to have wide-ranging knowledge about students, their interests, and abilities; the subjects being taught; alternative ways to teach and assess understanding; working with groups’ expectations and limitations of the school an community; how to apply and adapt materials and texts; and how to pull all this knowledge together into meaningful activities  You can do it yourself, but collaboration is better. Working with other teachers and sharing ideas is one of best experiences in teaching  There is no one model for planning Objectives for Learning  Many provinces developing standards that provide more specific descriptions of how students will demonstrate progress toward attainment of grand goals  Instructional Objectives  intended learning outcomes, or types of performance students will demonstrate after instruction to show what they have learned o Behavioural objectives use words like list, define, add, calculate o Cognitive objectives use words like understand, recognize, create, or apply  Mager: Start with the Specific o Robert Mager developed influential system for writing instructional objectives o Objectives ought to describe what students will be doing when demonstrating their achievement and how you will know they are doing it (behavioural objectives) o Behavioural Objectives has 3 parts  1. Describes the intended student behaviour  2. Lists the conditions under which the behaviour will occur  3. Gives criteria for acceptable performance on the test  Often students can teach themselves if they are given well-stated objectives  Gronlund: Start with a General o Gronlund and Brookhart (2009) used cognitive objectives o Believed an objective should be stated first in general terms then be given examples of behaviour that would provide evidence that the student has attained the objective Flexible and Creative Plans – Using Taxonomies  Bloom and colleagues developed a taxonomy, or classification system, of educational objectives – divided into 3 domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor o In real life, occur simultaneously – while students writing (psychomotor), students remembering or reasoning (cognitive) and are likely to have emotional response to task (affective)  The Cognitive Domain o 6 basic objectives listed in Bloom’s taxonomy of thinking or cognitive domain  Knowledge – remembering or recognizing something without necessarily understanding, using, or changing it  Comprehension – understanding material being communicated without necessarily relating it to anything else  Application – using general concept to solve particular problem  Analysis – breaking something down into it’s parts  Synthesis – creating something new by combining different ideas  Evaluation – judging value of materials or methods as they might be applied in particular situation  Bloom 2001 o Taxonomy considered among the most significant educational writings of the 20 century o New version retains 6 basic levels in slightly different order, but names of 3 changed to indicate cognitive processes involved  Remember (knowledge), understanding (comprehension), applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating (synthesizing)  The Affective Domain o Domain of emotional response not yet revised from original o Range from least committed to most committed o Lowest level – students simply pay attention to certain idea o Highest level – student adopt idea or value and act consistently with that idea o 5 basic objectives in affective domain:  Receiving – being aware of or attending to something as a result of experience (“I’ll listen to the concert but I wont promise to like it” level  Responding – showing some new behaviour as a result of experience (person may applaud after concert or hum of music the next day)  Valuing – showing some definite involvement or commitment (person might choose to go to concert instead of movie)  Organization – integrating new value into one’s general set of values, giving it some ranking among one’s general priorities (person would begin to make long-range commitments to concert attendance)  Characterization – acting consistently with new value (person firmly committed to love of music and demonstrate it openly and consistently)  The Psychomotor Domain o Realm of physical ability objectives most overlook by teachers, until recently o Cangelosi (1990) – either voluntary muscle capabilities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, agility and speed, or the ability to perform a specific skill o TenBrink (2006) – objectives should be:  Student-oriented (emphasis on what the student is expected to do)  Descriptive of an appropriate learning outcome (both developmentally appropriate and appropriately sequences, with more complex objectives following prerequisite objectives)  Clear and understandable (not too general or too specific)  Observable (avoid outcomes you cant see such as “appreciating” or “realizing” Planning From a Constructivist Perspective  Constructivist approaches – planning is shared and negotiated, student and teacher make decisions together about content, activities, and approaches Teaching Approaches Expository Teaching and Direct Instruction  Expository Teaching o Ausbel – stresses meaningful verbal learning – verbal information, ideas, and relationships among ideas, taken together o Believed that concepts, principles, and ideas are presented and understood using deductive reasoning o Advance organizers fall into 2 categories – comparative (activate already existing schemas) and expository (provide new knowledge that students will need to understand the upcoming information)  Help students learn, especially when material to be learned is quite unfamiliar, complex, or difficult, if the 2 conditions are met:  1. To be effective, organizer must be understood by the students  2. The organizer must really be an organizer, must indicate relations among the basic concepts and terms that will be used  Steps in an Expository Lesson o After advance organizer, next step is to present content in terms of similarities and differences using specific examples o Expository teaching is more developmentally appropriate for students at or above later elementary school, that is, around grades 5 or 6 ad up  Direct Instruction o Rosenshine - Systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills, facts, and information o Good - active teaching: teaching characterized by high levels of teacher explanation, demonstration, and interaction with students o Direct instruction model fits a specific set of circumstances because it was derived from a particular approach to research o Applies best to the teaching of basic skills, clearly structured knowledge and essential skills, such as science facts, math computations, reading vocabulary, and grammar rules o Skills involve tasks that are relatively unambiguous, taught step-by-step and tested objectively  Rosenshine’s Six Teaching Functions o 6 teaching functions based on research on effective instruction  1. Review and check previous day’s work – reteach if students misunderstood or made errors  2. Present new material – made purpose clear, teach in small steps, and provide many examples and non-examples  3. Provide guided practice – question students, give practice problems, and listen for misconceptions and misunderstandings. Reteach if necessary. Continue guided practice until students answer about 80% of questions correctly  4. Give feedback and correctives – based on student answers, reteach if necessary  5. Provide independent practice – let students apply new learning on their own, in seatwork, homework or cooperative groups. Success rate should be about 95%  6. Review weekly and monthly – to consolidate learning. Include some review items as homework. Test often, and reteach material missed on tests  Evaluating Direct Instruction o Direct instruction, particularly when it involves extended teacher presentations or lectures, has some disadvantages o Some students have trouble listening for more than a few minutes at a time and that they simply tune you out o Teacher presentations can put the students in a passive position by doing much of the cognitive work for them and may prevent students from asking or even thinking of questions o Scripted Cooperation – one way to incorporate active learning into lectures, several times during presentation, teacher asks students to work in pairs. One person is summarizer and other critiques the summary o Claim that direct instruction is based on a wrong theory of learning o Ample evidence that direct instruction and explanation can help students learn actively, not passively o Without guidance, the understandings that students construct may be incomplete and misleading Seatwork and Homework  Seatwork o Independent classroom-desk work o Should follow up a lesson and give students supervised practice o Should see connection between seatwork and homework and the lesson. Objectives should be clear, all materials that might be needed should be provided, and the work should be easy enough that students can succeed on their own o When too difficult, students often resort to guessing or copying, just to finish o Being available to students doing seatwork is more effective than offering students help before they ask for it. Short, frequent contacts are best  Homework o Educators have been studying the effects of homework for over 75 years o To benefit from individual or group seatwork or homework, students must stay involved and do the work o First step toward involvement is getting students started correctly by making sure that they understand the assignment  May help to do the first few questions as a class, to clear up any misconceptions Questioning and Discussion  Teachers pose questions; students answer – called recitation  Questions develop framework for the subject matter involved, students’ answers often followed by reactions from the teacher, such as praise, correction, or requests for further information  Questions can help students rehearse information for effective recall – work to identify gaps in knowledge base and provoke curiosity and long- term interest  Can initiate cognitive conflict and promote the disequilibrium that results in a changed knowledge structure – serve as cues, tips, or reminders  Kinds of Questions o Convergent questions – questions that have one single correct answer o Divergent questions – questions that have no single correct answer  Fittin
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