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Chapter 3

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PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

PSYC 3800 - Chapter 3 Social Context for Development Context = total setting or situation that surrounds and interacts with a person or event. It includes internal and external circumstances and situations that interact with the individual’s thoughts feelings and actions to shape development and learning. Effects how actions are interpreted Bronfenbrenner's Ecological systems theory = every person develops within a microsystem, inside a mesosystem, embedded in an exosystem, all of which are part of a macrosystem of culture.  Microsystem = direct interactions  Mesosytems =linkages between microsystems  Exosystems = experiences in settings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences  Macrosystem = Boarder culture  Chronosystem = Socio-historical conditions of a student’s development Families Blended = family resulting from two results cohabitating or remarrying Single-parent = a lone parent with custody of the children live on their own Parenting Styles = ways of interaction with and disciplining children  Children of authoritative parents are most likely to be happy with themselves and relate well to others  Children of authoritarian parents perform worse in school, are less popular and have lower levels of self control  Children of permissive parents are most likely immature, demanding, impulsive and demanding  Children of uninvolved parents are most likely to be insecure in relationships, non-compliant and aggressive  Higher control and more authoritarian parenting is linked to better grades for African American and some Asian students o Differences in cultural values and the danger associated with some neighbourhoods may make tighter parental control appropriate Attachment = forming an emotional bond with another personal, initially a parent of a family member. th 38% of marriages will end in divorce before their 30 anniversary. Peer groups = social groups formed on the basis of shared interest and values Cliques =relatively smaller friendship-based groups Crowds = loosely organized groups where members may or may not interact with another. Affiliation with crowds become salient during adolescence and prv sense of identity within a larger social structure Peer cultures = groups of children or with their own rules an norms, particularly about such things as dress, appearance, language, social values and behaviour Emotional/Hostile aggression: aggression in which one inflicts harm for its own sake on another Instrumental aggression: aggression in which one inflicts harm in order to obtain something of value Overt aggression = form of hostile aggression that involves physical attack Relational aggression = form of hostile aggression that involves verbal attacks and other actions meant to harm social relationships Modeling plays an important role in the expression of aggression (Albet Bandura’s BoBo doll experiment) Bullying = form of social interaction in which a more dominant individual exhibits aggressive behaviour that is intended to cause distress to a less dominant individual. 19% of Canadian students reported being bellied twice a term.  Passive victims = anxious, physically weak, unpopular and have low self-esteem. Do not provoke attacks and do little to defend themselves  Provocative victims = draw negative attention towards themselves  Bully/victims = provoke bullying in others and initiate aggressive acts  Bystanders –children who witness bullying when behaviour and do nothing about it  Cyber bullying = form of intentional aggression when an individual or a group of individual uses information technologies such as email or websites to inflict harm or others. Teachers  A good teacher should have positive interpersonal relationships (care about their students), can keep the classroom organized while maintaining authority without being mean and are good motivators.  Caring can be shown academically and personally  Must report child abuse if suspected (in 49% of cases reported by teachers, the calims were substantiated) Abuse 1. Physical abuse (assault) 2. Asexual abuse 3. Neglect 4. Emotional harm 5. Exposure to family violence PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT During preschool, there’s a rapid development of children’s gross and fine motor skills. Physical development continues through elementary school with girls often ahead of boys. In adolescence comes puberty and emotional struggles to cope. Puberty = physiological changes during adolescence that lead to the ability to reproduce o Early maturation for males leads to higher social status and more delinquent behaviour. Later maturation in boys may lead to more creative, tolerant and perceptive individuals. o Early maturation for girls is associated with emotional problems (although they already mature about 2 years early than boys) Weight issues and physical activity  Playing supports language as well as brain and social development  BMI = calculation of weight in relation to height  Bulimia = Eating disorder characterized by overreacting and getting rid of the food by self- induced vomiting or use of laxatives  Anorexia nervosa= eating disorder characterized by very limited food intake. Usually have a difficult time regulating internal body temperature. Girls may stop having a menstrual cycle. SELF CONCEPT AND IDENTITY Psychosocial = describing the relation of the individual’s emotional needs to the social environment Developmental crisis = specific conflict whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage Ethnic and racial identity Embracing values of
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