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University of Guelph
PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

Chapter OneLearning Teaching and Educational PsychologyLearning and Teaching Todayeducational psychologythe study of development learning and motivation that takes place in and out of schoolsDramatic Diversity Students Todaydiversity presents both challenges and opportunities to schools and communitiesmany teachers are homogenousDo Teachers Make a DifferenceEarly research findingswealth and social status determined who learned in schoolsTeacherStudent Relationships o HamrePiantafollowed 179 from kindergarten to end of grade 8the quality of the teacherstudent relationship in kindergarten level of conflict with the child the childs dependency on the teacher and the teachers affection for the child predicted academic and behavioural outcomes through grade 8relationship with the teacher still predicted aspects of school success o Piantafollowed children from 4 till grade 5the degree of emotional warmth of the teacherchild interactions and the teachers degree of skill in recognizing and responding to childrens needs consistently predicted the childs growth in reading and mathematics o students who have significant behaviour problems in the early years are less likely to have problems later in school if their teachers are sensitive to their needs and provide frequent consistent feedbackTeacher Preparation and Quality o Linda DarlingHammondthe quality of teachersas measured by whether the teachers were fully certified and earned a major in their teaching fieldwas related to student performancemeasures of teacher preparation and certification were by far the strongest predictors of student achievement in reading and mathematicsteachers who are teaching outside their field the lower their students achievement tends to bePointCounterpointPointSchool renewal depends on what teachers know and can do to enhance their students learning o teaching standards honour and advance the profession o standards articulate the knowledge skills and attitudes that professional educators should possess and to outline the responsibilities that accrue to them as professionals who hold the public trust o Standards will lead to higher status and to greater autonomy for the teaching profession o Standards can also clarify how teachers contribute to the lives of students o some pedagogical approaches are more effective than othersall teachers be required to learn and effectively implement these approachesCounterpointThe teaching standards movement has more to do with punishing teachers than with enhancing their professionalism o concerned about how standards will be used in practiceused for discipline of teachers o it is unfair to create standards as a set of responsibilities for teachers without also acknowledging the responsibility of employers school and district administrators governments to ensure that conditions are met that enable teachers to meet the standardssuch as being forced to teach a different class becase of teacher shortage or budget cutbacks o the potential for governments to use standards that create a highstakes and punitive environment for teachers that could end up having a negative impact on students ability to learnWhat is Good Teachingboth knowledgeable and inventiveuse a range of strategies but create their own new strategies as wellresearchbased routines for managing classes but they must also be willing and able to break from the routine when the situation calls for changeReflectiveThoughtful and inventiveo think back over situations to analyze what they did and why o consider how they might improve learning for their studentsWhat are the Concerns of Beginning Teachershow to maintain classroom discipline motivate students accommodate differences among students evaluate students work deal with parents and get along with other teacherssometimes offered the job mere days before school startsa lot different than practicumtricky balancing act satisfying the needs of the schools administration the curriculum and most importantly yourselfThe Role of Educational Psychologyeducational psychologyThe discipline concerned with teaching and learning processes it applies the methods and theories of psychology and has its own as wellIn the Beginning Linking Educational Psychology and TeachingWilliam James officially founded the field of psychology and developed a lecture series for teachers entitled Talks to Teachers on Psychology o Jamess student G Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological AssociationHalls student John Dewey founded the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago and is considered the father of the progressive education movementWilliam Jamess student E L Thorndike wrote the first educational psychology text in 1903 and founded the Journal of Educational Psychology in 19101940s1950s the study of educational psychology concentrated on individual differences assessment and learning behaviours1960s1970sthe focus of research shifted to the study of cognitive development and learning with attention to how students learn concepts and rememberNowstudy how culture and social factors affect learning and development Educational Psychology Todayeducational psychologists study learning and teaching and at the same time strive to improve educational practiceeducational psychologists examine what happens when someone a teacher or parent orsomething a computer teaches something math or weaving or dancing to someone else a student or coworker or team in some setting a classroom or theatre or gymeducational psychologists study o child and adolescent development o learning and motivation including how people learn different academic subjects such as reading or mathematics o social and cultural influences on learning o teaching and teachers o assessment including testingIs it Just Common SenseTaking turns o Researchcreate a system ie going around in a circle should make sure that everyone has the chance for practice and feedbackEnsures that no one is skipped over overlookedClassroom Management o Researchthe more often a teacher told students to sit down when they were out of their seats the more often the students got out of their seats without permissionBetter to praise those who are sittingleads to better behaviourSkipping Grades o Researchchildren who have been accelerated have adjusted as well as or better than have children of similar ability who have not been acceleratedUsing Research to Understand and Improve LearningDescriptive StudiesStudies that collect detailed information about specific situations often using observation surveys interviews recordings or a combination of these methodssurvey results interview responses samples of actual classroom dialogue or observations of class activitiesEthnographyA descriptive approach to research that focuses on life within a group and tries to understand the meaning of events to the people involved o studying naturally occurring events in the life of a group and trying to understand the meaning of these events to the people involvedParticipant observationthe researcher becomes a participant in the situation in order to better understand life in that group o works within the class or school to understand the actions from the perspectives of the teacher and the studentscase studyinvestigates in depth how a teacher plans courses for example or how a student tries to learn specific materialCorrelational Studieso Correlationstatistical description of how closely two variables are related o The closer the correlation is to either 100 or 100 the stronger the relationshipPositivecorrelationtwo factors increase or decrease togetherNegativecorrelationincrease in one factor are related to decreases in the other o Correlation does not prove cause and effectExperimental StudiesExperimentationresearch method in which variables are manipulated and the effects recordedHelps to determine cause and effectStatistically significantdifferences probably did not happen simply by chanceSingleSubject Experimental StudiesSystematic interventions to study effects with one person often by applying and then withdrawing a treatmentGoalto determine the effects of a therapy teaching method or other interventionABAB experimentobserve an individual for a baseline period A and assess the behaviour of interest then try an intervention B and note the results then remove the intervention and goback to baseline conditions A and finally reinstate the intervention B o Ex record how often a student is out of her seat without permission during a weeklong baseline A and then for the following week ignore her when she is up but praise her when she is seated B recording how many times she is wandering out of her seat Next the teacher returns to the baseline conditions A and records results Finally the teacher reinstates the intervention B and observes whether it works againMicrogenetic StudiesDetailed observation and analysis of changes in a cognitive process as the process unfolds over several days or weeksGoalintensively study cognitive processes in the midst of changeas the change is actually happening3 basic characteristics 1 Researchers observe the entire period of the changefrom when it starts to the time it is relatively stable 2 many observations are made often using videotape recordings interviews and transcriptions of the exact words of the individuals being studied 3 the behaviour that is observed is put under a microscope that is examined moment by moment or trial by trialRole of Time in Researchlongitudinal studiesStudies that document changes that occur in subjects over time often many yearsCrosssectional studiesStudies that focus on groups of subjects at different ages rather than following the same group for many years
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