Chapter 5 (pgs. 176179) – Language Differences in the Classroom
• additive bilingualism—you kept your first language and added another.
• Subtractive bilingualism lost your first language when you added a second one
o Immigrants are more likely to experience discrimination and therefore “subtract”
their first language.
What Does Bilingualism Mean?
• People who speak two languages
• those students who perform poorly in school and are overrepresented in special
education programs are members of minority groups who have historically been
discriminated against by the dominant group
o immigrating later in their school experience is better for academic prospects ▯
latecomers have not experienced the devaluation of their cultural identity in their
• English language learners (ELL) – students whose primary or heritage language is not
• English as a second language (ESL) classrooms, where these students learn English
• Proficiency in a second language has two separate aspects:
o facetoface communication (known as “contextualized language skills”)
23 years to be able to communicate face to face in second language.
Mastering the face to face communication takes 57 years
o academic uses of language, such as reading and doing grammar exercises
(“decontextualized language skills”)
Myths About Bilingual Students
Learning a second language (L2) Learning English as a second language takes two to three
takes little time and effort. years for oral and five to seven years for academic
All language skills (listening, Reading is the skill that transfers most readily.
speaking, reading, writing) transfer
from L1 to L2
Codeswitching is an indication of a Codeswitching indicates highlevel language skills in both
language disorder. L1 and L2.
All bilinguals easily maintain both It takes great effort and attention to maintain highlevel
languages. skills in both languages.
Children do not lose their first Loss of L1 and underdevelopment of L2 are problems for
language. secondlanguage learners (semilingual in L1 and L2).
Exposure to English is sufficient for To learn L2, students need to have a reason to
L2 learning. communicate, access to English speakers, interaction,
support, feedback, and time.
For children to learn English, their Children need to use both languages in many contexts.
parents need to speak only English
at home. Reading in L1 is detrimental to Literacyrich environments in either L1 or L2 support
learning English. development of necessary prereading skills.
Language disorders must be Children must be tested in both L1 and L2 to determine
identified by tests in English. language disorders.
• two contrasting teaching approaches:
o one that focuses on making the transition to English as quickly as possible
o the other that attempts to maintain or improve the native language and use the
native language as the primary teaching language until English skills are more
Two Approaches to Bilingual Education
1. Transition approach believe that English ought to be introduced as early as possible
argue that valuable learning time is lost if students are taught in their native
Canada often follows this
2. Nativelanguage maintenance instruction
Address 4 important issues:
i. children who are forced to try to learn math or science in an unfamiliar
language are bound to have trouble
o Some psychologists believe students taught by this approach
may become semilingual not proficient in either language.
ii. students may get the message that their home languages (and their
families and cultures) are second class
iii. the academic content (math, science, history, etc.) that students are taught
in their native language is learned—they do not forget the knowledge and
skills when they are able to speak English.
iv. Ironically, by the time students have mastered academic English and let
their home language deteriorate, they reach secondary school and are
encouraged to learn a second language
create classes that mix students who are learning a second language with students
who are native speakers
Chapter 3 Self and Social and Moral Development
Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development
• Context the total setting or situation that surrounds and interacts with a person or event.
o It includes internal and external circumstances and situations that interact with
the individual’s thoughts, feelings, and actions to shape developments and
• contexts influence the development of behaviours, beliefs, and knowledge by providing
resources, supports, incentives and punishments, expectations, teachers, models, and
tools— all the building blocks of learning and development
• Contexts also affect how actions are interpreted.
• Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of development theory describing the nested
social and cultural contexts that shape development.
o Every person develops within a mesosystem (interactions and relationships),
inside a microsystem (relationships and activities), embedded in an exosystem (all social settings), all of which are a part of the macrosystem (larger society) of
• Bronfenbrenner’s theory has at least two lessons for teachers:
1. influences in all social systems are reciprocal.
2. there are many dynamic forces that interact to create the context for individual
• Diane Baumrind, Maccoby, & Martin – identified 4 parenting styles:
parents are high in warmth but they also exert firm control.
they monitor their children closely, setting clear standards and
communicating high expectations for behaviour.
These parents are firm without being harsh or unreasonable.
parents are rational and supportive in their approach to discipline, willing
to negotiate in disciplinary matters.
children of authoritative parents are more likely to be happy with
themselves and to relate well to others
• They do well in school and maintain positive relationships with
parents tend to be high in control and low in warmth and responsiveness,
setting firm limits and expecting children to follow orders, because they
say so, often without explanation or negotiation.
approaches to discipline can be harsh and punitive
• the explanation and negotiation that characterize authoritative
approaches to parenting often are not present in interactions
between authoritarian parents and their children.
children of authoritarian parents perform less well in school, are more
hostile and less popular with peers, and have lower levels of selfcontrol
than children raised by authoritative parents
parents are warm but have little control.
They have few rules or consequences for their children and expect little
in the way of mature behaviour because “they’re just kids.”
Rather than actively trying to shape their children’s behaviour, these
parents view themselves as resources for their children to use as they
Children raised by permissive parents tend to be immature and
• they tend to be more impulsive, rebellious, and aggressive than
children raised by authoritative parents, and less socially
competent and confident
the extreme of permissiveness becomes indulgence ▯Indulgent parents
cater to their children’s every whim
parents are low in warmth and control. Uninvolved ▯They put little effort into parenting and, often, are more
focused on their own needs than the needs of their children.
They may fail to set schedules for sleeping and eating, and react harshly
to children’s advances or requests for attention.
Often these parents have significant problems of their own, which limit
or inhibit their ability to meet the needs of their children.
• Parents who are depressed or who have drug or alcohol problems
may become neglecting or rejecting.
Children of these parents fare worst of all
• They tend to be insecure in their relationships, noncompliant,
aggressive, and withdrawn
• In adolescence, these children are more likely to engage in risky
and delinquent behaviour, suffer disruptions in social and
cognitive development, and perform poorly in school
Culture and Parenting
• higher control and more authoritarian parenting are linked to better grades for African
American and some Asian students
• Parenting that is strict and directive, with clear rules and consequences, combined with
high levels of warmth and emotional support, is associated with higher academic
achievement and greater emotional maturity for innercity children
Attachment and Parenting Styles
• The first attachment is between the child and parents or other caregivers. ▯the quality of
this bond has implications for forming relationships throughout life
• Secure attachments receive comfort when needed and are more confident to explore
their world, perhaps because they know they can count on the caregiver
• Insecure/disorganized attachments can be fearful, sad, anxious, clinging, rejecting, or
angry in interactions with the caregivers
• Attachment affects teachers:
o children who have formed secure attachments with parents are less dependent on
teachers and interact with other children appropriately.
Secure attachment is positively related to achievement test scores,
teacher assessments of social competence throughout the school years,
and even to lower dropout rates
• 38% of marriages in Canada in any given year will end in divorce before the couple’s
• divorce rate for first marriages is lower than for second and subsequent marriages
• For the child, this can mean leaving behind important friendships in the old
neighbourhood or school, just when support is needed the most
• can be a better alternative for children than growing up in a home filled with conflict and
• The first two years after a divorce seem to be the most difficult
• Positive peer relationships are associated with adaptive development • children and adolescents who experience peer rejection or who have difficulty forming or
maintaining friendships are at risk for maladjustment
Peer Groups social groups formed on the basis of shared interests and values.
• Cliques relatively smaller friendshipbased groups (312), which predominate in middle
• Crowds less intimate, more loosely organized groups where members may or may not
interact with one another
o provides a sense of identity within a larger social structure
• positive outcomes for children ▯learning how to cooperate and how to control negative
emotions and hostile impulses
• Peer groups provide support that helps children cope with stress in their lives.
• peer groups also can become exclusive societies that rebuff children who don’t conform
to certain dress codes and behaviour
Peer Cultures Groups of students with their own rules and norms, particularly about such things
as dress, appearance, music, language, social values, and behaviour.
• Encourage conformity
• Peers influence usually dominates the influence of the parents
o Peer cultures are more powerful in defining issues of style and socializing.
o Parents and teachers still are influential in matters of morality, career choice, and
• Key features of friendship are reciprocity and equality
• friendships can influence motivation and achievement in school
• Children who are rejected by their peers are less likely to participate in classroom
learning activities, they are more likely to drop out of school as adolescents, and they
may even evidence more problems as adults
Who Is Likely to Have Problems With Peers?
• New students who are physically, intellectually, ethnically, racially, economically, or
linguistically different may be rejected in classes with established peer groups
• Students who are aggressive, withdrawn, and inattentivehyperactive are also more likely
to be rejected.
• part of being rejected is being too different from the norm
• Instrumental aggression – Strong actions aimed at claiming an object, place, or privilege
—not intended to harm, but may lead to harm.
o Ex. shoving to get in line first or snatching a toy from another child
• Hostile aggression Bold, direct action that is intended to hurt someone else; unprovoked
o Overt aggression A form of hostile aggression that involves threats or physical
More likely to be used by boys o Relational aggression A form of hostile aggression that involves verbal attacks
and other actions meant to harm social relationships.
More likely to be used by girls
• You can reduce the negative effects of TV violence by stressing three points with your
o most people do not behave in the aggressive ways shown on television
o the violent acts on television are not real, but are created by special effects and
o there are better ways to resolve conflicts, and these better ways are the ways that
most real people solve their problems
Bullying – a form of social interaction in which a more dominant individual exhibits aggressive
behaviour that is intended to cause distress or harm to a less dominant individual
• PREVNet, a Network Centre of Excellence focused on “Promoting Relationships and
o the network develops and implements strategies designed to stop bullying and to
promote healthy relationships among children and youth in school and
• aggressive children tend to believe that violent acts with be rewards – use aggression to
get what they want
• being surrounded by violence and believing that violent “payback” is appropriate when
you are insulted or harmed
• boys have difficulty reading the intentions of others
• Insults, gossip, exclusion, taunts—intent is to harm social connections
• As children mature they’re more likely to use relational aggression than physical
• Passive victims tend to be anxious, physically weak, unpopular, and have low self
o Do not provoke the attacks and do little to defend themselves
• Provocative victims tend to have their own set of problems that draws negative attention
o They tend to be physically stronger than passive victims and more actively
engaged in incidents that lead to bullying
• Bully/victims often provoke bullying in others and initiate aggressive acts.
• Children who are victims may develop a strong disliking for going to school, may distrust
peers, and may have difficulty making friends
• Over the long term, children who are chronic victims of bullying through elementary and
middle school suffer from anxiety, embarrassment, guilt, loneliness, and loss of self
o In extreme cases, they may experience sleep, speech, and dissociative disorders;
panic attacks; paranoia; obsessive compulsive disorder; selfmutilation; delays in
mental, socialemotional, and physical development; or even posttraumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) Bystanders Children who witness bullying behaviour and may or may not do anything about it.
• individuals may feel more free to bully online than in person.
What to do about Bullying?
• Experts caution against punitive and exclusionary approaches, such as zerotolerance
policies, which have actually exacerbated problems in many cases
• Schoolwide positive behaviour support (SWPBS) systems teach rules and reward
students for following them
o problem behaviour is analyzed from a functional perspective (i.e., what purpose
does it serve?) and interventions address the root of the problem
• socialemotional learning (SEL) help students to develop selfawareness, selfcontrol,
social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision making
• Being liked by teachers can offset the negative effects of peer rejection in middle school.
Academic and Personal Caring
• Students define good teacher as:
o have positive interpersonal relationships—they care about their students.
o can keep the classroom organized and maintain authority without being rigid or
o are good motivators—they can make learning fun by being creative and
• students’ perceptions of their teachers’ affective support and caring were related to the
effort they invested in learning
• academic caring setting high but reasonable expectations and helping students to reach
• personal caring being patient, respectful, humorous, willing to listen, and interested in
students’ issues and personal problems.
o Critical in determining student’s own caring about school
• Students withhold their cooperation until teachers “earn it” with their authentic caring –
BUT Teachers withhold caring until students “earn it” with respect for authority and
Reaching Every Student: Teachers and Child Abuse
• 5 types of child maltreatment:
1. Physical abuse (assault) The application of unreasonable force by an adult or
youth to any part of a child’s body
2. Sexual abuse involvement of a child, by an adult or youth, in an act of sexual
gratification, or exposure of a child to sexual contact, activity, or behaviour
3. Neglect Failure by a parent or caregiver to provide the physical or
psychological necessities of life to a child
4. Emotional harm Adult behaviour that harms a child psychologically, emotion
ally, or spiritually 5. Exposure to family violence Circumstances that allow a child to be aware of
violence occurring between a caregiver and his/her partner or between other
Indicators of Child Abuse (Table 3.3, pg 80)
Physical and Motor Development
The Early Years
• between ages 2 and about 4 or 5, preschoolers’ muscles grow stronger and their brains
develop to better integrate information about movements
o Their balance improves, and their centre of gravity moves lower, so they are able
to run, jump, climb, and hop
• Because they can’t always judge when to stop, preschoolers may need interludes of rest
scheduled after periods of physical exertion
• Finemotor skills such as tying shoes or fastening buttons, which require the coordination
of small movements, also improve greatly during the preschool years.
o Children should be given large paintbrushes, fat pencils, large lego blocks and
soft clay to accommodate their developing skills
o children will begin to develop a lifelong preference for their right or left hand.
The Elementary School Years
• physical development is steady
• large variation in development
• Throughout elementary school, many of the girls are likely to be as large as or larger than
the boys in their classes.
The Adolescent Years
• Puberty The physiological changes during adolescence that lead to the ability to
o Series of changes
• girls begin puberty between ages 10 and 11 and reach their final height by age 16 or 17
• boys being puberty between 1213 and reach their final height by 18
• 80% of girls have their first period between the ages of 11 and 14
• tension for adolescents is that they are physically and sexually mature years before they
are psychologically or financially ready to shoulder the adult responsibilities of marriage
• earlymaturing boys are more likely to have advantages in sports and enjoy high social
o one study also found earlymaturing boys in grade 5 to have more symptoms of
• boys who mature late may have a more difficult time
o some studies show that in adulthood, males who matured later tend to be more
creative, tolerant, and perceptive
• girls maturing ahead of classmates can be a definite disadvantage
o Being larger than everyone else in the class is not a valued characteristic for girls
in many cultures o Early maturation is associated with emotional difficulties such as depression,
anxiety, and eating disorders
• Latermaturing girls seem to have fewer problems, but they may worry that something is
wrong with them.
Play, Recess, and Physical Activity
• Play is children’s work
• Babies in the sensorimotor stage learn by exploring, sucking, pounding, shaking, and
throwing—acting on their environments.
• Preoperational preschoolers love pretend play and use pretending to form symbols, use
language, and interact with others. They are beginning to play simple games with
• Elementaryschoolage children also like fantasy, but begin to play more complex games
and sports, and thus learn cooperation, fairness, negotiation, winning, and losing as well
as develop more sophisticated language.
• As children grow into adolescents, play continues to be part of their physical and social
• Positive outcomes of recess and outdoor play:
o Play is an active form of learning that unites the mind, body, and spirit.
o Play reduces the tension that often comes with having to achieve or needing to
learn ▯children relax
o Children express and work out emotional aspects of everyday experiences
through unstructured play.
o Children permitted to play freely with peers develop skills for seeing things
through another person’s point of view—cooperating, helping, sharing, and
o The senses of smell, touch, and taste, and the sense of motion through space are
powerful modes of learning.
o Children who are less restricted in their access to the outdoors gain competence
in moving through the larger worl▯ ble to navigate their immediate
• Asian countries, who consistently outperform U.S. students on international tests, have
more frequent recess breaks throughout the school day
o with more breaks there might be fewer students, especially boys, diagnosed with
• federal government recommends 90 minutes of physical activity for children every day ▯
only 23% of children reach this
Challenges in Physical Development
Childhood Overweight and Obesity
• Childhood obesity usually is defined in terms of body mass index, or BMI, which
calculates weight in relation to height
o BMI between 8595% is considered overwight
o BMI of 95%+ are considered obese
• Consequences of obesity in children and adolescents = diabetes, strain on bones and joint,
respiratory problems, and heart problems as adults
Eating Disorders The Brain and Adolescent Development
• changes in the brain increase students’ computational skills as well as their ability to
control behaviour in both lowstress and highstress situations, to be more purposeful and
organized, and to inhibit impulsive behaviour
• may have trouble controlling emotions and avoiding risky behaviours.
• need more intense emotional stimulation than either children or adults
• changes in the neurological system during adolescence affect sleep
o need 9 hours but often don’t sleep until after midnight ▯sleepdeprivation
o classroom work in seats may put kids to sleep
o no time for sleep, no time for breakfast ▯nutrition deprived
SelfConcept and Identity
Erikson: Stages of Individual Development
• Erikson offe