PSYC 3800 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Confirmation Bias, Divergent Thinking, Critical Thinking

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Chapter 9
Complex Cognitive Processes
Metacognition
- Executive control processes
oProcesses such as selective attention, rehearsal, elaboration, and organization that
influence encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in memory
- Metacognitive knowledge and regulation
oMetacognition
Knowledge about our own thinking processes
Higher order knowledge about your own thinking as well as our ability to use
this knowledge to manage your own cognitive processes such as
comprehending and problem solving
Involves 3 kinds of knowledge
Declarative knowledge about yourself as a learner
oFactors that influence your learning and memory, and skills,
strategies, and resources you need to perform a task
oKnowing what to do
Procedural knowledge
oKnowing how to use the strategies
Self-regulatory knowledge to ensure completion of the task
oKnowing the conditions, when and why, to apply the procedures
and strategies
o3 essential skills
Planning
Deciding how much time to give to a task, which strategies to use, how
to start, which resources to gather, what order to follow, what to skim
and what to give attention to, etc.
Monitoring
Is the real time awareness of “how am I doing”
Evaluating
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Making judgements about the processes and outcomes of thinking and
learning
Reflection
- Individual differences in metacognition
oSome differences in metacognition are a result of development
Younger children may not be aware of the purpose of a lesson, or good at
gauging the difficulty of a task
As children grow they are able to exercise executive control over strategies
Able to determine if they have understood instructions or studied
enough
Abilities begin to develop around 5 to 7
oSome differences are due to differences in biology or learning experiences
Many students with CIDs have problems monitoring their attention
- Lessons for teachers: Developing metacognition
oMetacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved
oMetacognitive development for younger students
Self-reflection checklist
KWL
Asks
oWhat do I KNOW about this subject?
oWhat do I WANT to know?
oAfterwards, what have I LEARNED?
It encourages students to look within and identify what they bring to
each learning situation, where they want to go, and what they have
achieved
oMetacognitive development for secondary and university students
Teachers can include metacognitive questions into their lessons, lectures, and
assignments
Learning strategies
- Effective learning strategies help students learn and they can be taught to students
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- Learning
oStudents must be cognitively engaged to learn
They have to focus attention on relevant or important aspects of the material
oThey must think and process deeply
Effort must be invested to make connections, elaborate, translate, invent,
organize, and reorganize
The greater the practice and processing the stronger the learning
oStudents must regulate and monitor their learning
Keep track of what is making sense and noticing when a new approach is
needed
They must be metacognitive
- Being strategic about learning
oLearning strategies
A special kind or procedural knowledge
Knowing how to approach learning tasks
oStrategies
Cognitive
Summarizing, identifying the main idea
Metacognitive
Monitoring comprehension, “Do I understand?”
Behavioural
Using a dictionary, setting a timer to work till time’s up, etc.
oPrinciples
Students should be exposed to a number of strategies, not only general but
subject specific ones as well
Students should be taught conditional knowledge about when, where, and why
to use various strategies
They must develop the desire to employ the strategies
Students must believe the strategies will work and that the effort will pay off
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