PSYC 3800 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Job Satisfaction, Summary Judgment, Menarche

14 views18 pages
Chapter 3
Self and Social and Moral Development
Physical development
- Physical and motor development
oYoung children
Gross motor skills improve greatly during these early years
Between 2 and 4/5 years they muscles grow stronger, and their brains
develop to better integrate information about movements
Balance improves and center of gravity moves lower
oAllows them to run, jump, climb, and hop
Their awkward wide-legged gait becomes smooth and rhythmic
oThey have perfected walking
Children will learn to run, throw, and jump, but these activities are not
well controlled until age 4/5
oMost of the movements develop naturally if the child has
normal physical abilities and the opportunity to play
oChildren with physical problems may need special training in
these skills
Fine motor skills which require the coordination of small movements also
greatly improve during the preschool years
They begin to develop a preference for their right or left hand
oElementary school years
Physical development is fairly steady
There is tremendous variation in who grows how much
They become taller, leaner, and stronger, so they are better able to master
sports
Between 11 and 14 girls tend to be taller and heavier than boys
oThe adolescent years
Puberty marks the beginning of sexual maturity
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
At around age 10 girls breasts will begin budding and boys scrotum and
testes will begin growing larger
On average between 12 and 13 girls will have their first menstrual
period (menarche) and boys will have their first perm ejaculation
(spermarche)
Boys develop facial hair over the next few years
Girls reach their final height by 15/16 and boys by 19
Academic, social, and emotional differences between adolescents who mature
early and late
For girls early development can be a disadvantage
oIs associated with emotional difficulties (ex. depression, anxiety,
eating disorders)
oLower achievement in school, drug and alcohol abuse,
unplanned pregnancy, suicide, and breast cancer
oEarlier the menarche, the greater the adult BMI
Late girl development have fewer problems, some may just worry
something is wrong with them
Early maturity in boys is associated with popularity
oEngage in more delinquent behaviour
oGreater risk for depression and for abusing alcohol and
cigarettes
Late maturing boys may experience lower-self esteem
oHave a more difficult time initially
oTend to be more creative, tolerant, and problem solvers
- Play, recess, and physical activity
o“play is children’s work”
oPlay is essential to development as it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and
emotional wellbeing of children and youth
The brain develops with stimulation, and play provides some of that stimulation
at every age
Play might help with the pruning of synapses during childhood
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Play allows children to experiment safely as they learn about their environment,
try out new behaviours, solve problems, and adapt to new situations
oBabies
Learn by exploring, sucking, pounding, shaking and throwing
Acting on their environments
oPreschoolers
Love pretend play and use pretend play to form symbols, use language, and
interact with others
Begin to play simple games with predictable rules
oElementary- school-age
Like fantasy
Begin to play more complex games and sports
Learn cooperation, fairness, negotiation, winning and losing, and
developing more sophisticated language
oAdolescents
Play continues to be part of their physical and social development
oPhysical exercise and recess
Systematic exercise programs may enhance development of specific typex of
mental processing important for meeting challenges encountered in academics
and life
Students 8/9 were better behaved in class with 15 min of recess or
more daily
oMost important for students with ADHD
Children should engage in 90 min of exercise each day
The schools play a role in helping children achieve this
- Challenges in physical development
oPhysical development is public, causing students to feel like they are on stage as they
develop
oObesity
Obesity is a growing problem in north America, especially for children
32% of youth and children are overweight or obese
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class