PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10-13: Common Core State Standards Initiative, Intellectual Disability, Task Analysis

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Chapter 10
Instructional Content
Exam 25% 65 MC 35 TRUE & FALSE
What do all students need to learn?
A Nation at Risk resulted increased attention to curriculum and accountability
Numerous groups and individuals have input into deciding educational goals
Much of the school reform movement aims to improve science, math, and literacy
standards
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are the academic standards of choice in many
states
What do students with CIDS need to learn?
Critical skills are the skills needed to participate in daily routines
Many critical skills need to be taught explicitly to student with CIDS
Functional curriculum includes a focus on practical skills needed for everyday living
Independent living skills include hygiene, toileting, dressing, home living, and personal
mobility
Many independent living skills need to be specifically taught, but others need to be
strengthened
Personal mobility includes teaching students to reach various destinations and to use various
routes and public transportation when traveling
Communication skills are a frequent goal for students with CIDS
What do students with CIDS need to learn?
Speech problems include difficulty with articulation such as substitutions, omissions,
distortions
Voice problems include difficulty in pitch or voice intensity
Language disorders include delayed language and underdeveloped vocabulary
o Many students with severe CIDs have difficulty with basic communication
functions
Nonsymbolic communication involves changes in voice, pitch, or body tone
o Communication goals require decisions involving form versus function
o Communication training is a common intervention for students with problem
behavior
o Many students with CIDs require instruction to improve their social interactions
and relations
What do students with CIDS need to learn?
Social skills are specific behaviors that connect people to one another
Social perceptions involve understanding how people relate to one another
Social skills include initiations, responses to initiations, continued interactions, and
terminations of social exchanges
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Relationship-building skills involve problem solving, understanding the perspectives of others,
and reading logistical barriers
What do students with CIDs need to learn?
Students with CIDs typically receive academic instruction
Academic instruction might include access to the general education curriculum and the
CCSS, or a focus on functional academics linked to career development
Deisios aout the aout of aadei istutio i a studets poga geeate a
great deal of discussion among professionals and parents
Many students with CIDs require instruction in transition and community living skills
What do student s with CIDs need to learn?
As states adopt the Common Core State Standards, two questions emerged involving placing
such a heavy academic focus on students with CIDs:
Can theses students participate meaningfully in the Common Core?
What will these students miss by participating in a primarily academic curriculum?
Principles for deciding instructional content
Students with CIDs require instruction that is planned and purposeful
Instructional planning requires that participants have a future, environmental focus
Criterion of ultimate functioning. If the student could not perform the proposed skill,
would another personal have to do it for the student, or could the task goo undone?
Quality-of-Life Criterion. This asks whether the skills taught to students would improve
their life quality
Age Appropriateness Criterion. This requires matching the kills taught and materials
used to a studets hoologial age
o Student interest is important when selecting instructional outcomes
Where do teachers gain information about instructional content?
Individualized Educational Program (IEP) is the formal mechanism for planning an
instructional program
Individualized Family Services Program (IFSP) is the formal mechanism for planning
programs for infants and toddlers
o Instructional assessments yield important data when planning instructional
programs
o Person-centered planning is relevant in selecting instructional goals because
sigifiat people i a studets life ake stateets aout the studets long-
term dreams and hopes
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Chapter 11
Instructional Procedure
What assumptions guide instructional delivery?
Students with CIDs benefit from the same patterns of schooling as students who do not
have disabilities
To master the knowledge and skills needed for the future, most students with CIDs will
require explicit instruction
Students with CIDs will make remarkable learning gains hen provided with powerful
instruction
How do teachers organize instructional programs?
Isolated skill teaching- requires direct instruction on discrete, specific skills
Integrated skills teaching- infuses instruction into routines and skill sequences
Splinter skills- skills that are developed in isolation
Integrated instruction is a critical practice for students with CIDs
How do teachers organize instructional programs?
Thematic instruction- includes instruction on specific skills in the context of broad topics
or themes
Unit approach to instruction- introduces skills and knowledge across subject matter
How do teachers organize instructional programs?
Physical and personal structure- modifications that provide students with visual and
environmental assistance
o Visual cues and structure involves positioning and organizing materials so tasks
can be completed with little to no verbal information
o Personal schedules help students sequence their daily activities
Permanent prompts- include visual, auditory, or other assists that do not need to be
removed
Work systems- structured and organized materials that add visual clarity to tasks
o Classrooms should be organized into work and nonwork areas
How do teachers organize instructional programs?
Classrooms should be organized into work and nonwork areas
Transition area- a place for students to go after completing tasks, and before proceeding
to the next one
How do teachers organize instructional programs?
Acquisition- involves learning new concepts, skills, and actions
Fluency- the combination of accuracy and speed that allows a skill to be useful in a
natural environment
Generalization- involves using a skills in new ways or under novel conditions
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Document Summary

Exam 25% 65 mc 35 true & false. A nation at risk resulted increased attention to curriculum and accountability. Numerous groups and individuals have input into deciding educational goals. Much of the school reform movement aims to improve science, math, and literacy standards. The common core state standards (ccss) are the academic standards of choice in many states. Critical skills are the skills needed to participate in daily routines. Many critical skills need to be taught explicitly to student with cids. Functional curriculum includes a focus on practical skills needed for everyday living. Independent living skills include hygiene, toileting, dressing, home living, and personal mobility. Many independent living skills need to be specifically taught, but others need to be strengthened. Personal mobility includes teaching students to reach various destinations and to use various routes and public transportation when traveling. Communication skills are a frequent goal for students with cids. Speech problems include difficulty with articulation such as substitutions, omissions, distortions.

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