PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Educational Assessment, Washing Machine, Communication

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Chapter 9 Instructional Assessment
Key Points
MULITDIMENSIONAL NATURE- it is important tat the age of the student and the
severity of the disability be considered when planning and conducting functional
educational assessment
INFORMAL ASSESSMENT: INSTRUCTION DEISION MAKING- techniques for this purpose
include criterion-referenced testing and criterion-referenced curriculum-based
assessment
INFORMAL ASSESSMENT: MONTIROTING PROGRESS- techniques for this purpose
include observation, portfolio assessment, and curriculum-based measurement
ACCOMMODATINOS AND LATERNATE ASSESSMENT- IDEA mandates that all students
participate in statewide and district assessments or be given a more appropriate
alternate assessment
ASSESSMENT BY FUNCTIONAL SKILL AREA- areas to be assessed could include
independent living skills, communication skills, social skills, basic academic skills.
Prevocational/vocational skills, and community living skills
MULTIDIMESIONAL NATURE
o Assessing CIDs is complex. Considering the severity of the disability will have an impact
on the assessment, procedure, instruments, and techniques that are used
o Important assessment is functional and pragmatic, focusing on the assessment of skills,
which when taught, will lead to the greatest degree of independence
o Assessing independent living skills, employ-ability, and community living skills in adults
o Some techniques (e.g the use of a norm-referenced test [NRT]0 might be specific to the
skill are selected for interest
o Other techniques used to assist in instructional decision making can be used in more
than one functional skill area
o Another important aspect of instructional assessment is progress monitoring or
determining the effectiveness of an instructional program
o The final concern with instructional assessment is the legal requirement that all student
be included in large-scale accountability assessments (e.g districtwide or statewide
assessments). Important component of this mandate is that accommodations be made
for students with CIDs such as alternate assessment procedures
INFORMAL ASSESSMENT: INSTRUCTIONAL DECISION MAKING
o Criterion-referenced tests help provide information about which specific skills should be
targeted for instruction. These tests do not compare an individuals’ performance to
other. Rather, provide more specific information about what the individual does and
doesn’t know or can and cannot do
o Norm-referenced tests usually cover a broad range of areas with few items per area
whereas criterion-referenced tests usually measure a more limited domain with
numerous items per area
o Criterion-referenced test can either be teacher made or commercially made
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o A teacher made test is more flexible and specific for a given skill area for a student but,
take a lot of time to develop
o Commercially prepared criterion-referenced tests include hundreds of skills areas that
offer a teacher a good selection. These tests are usually referred to as criterion-
referenced inventories CRIs
Teacher-Made Tests
o Clearly define the skill area measured done so by identifying goals from an IEP
o One way to do this is by task analysis which is the identification and sequencing of
behaviors that are necessary components of the skill required for an individual to
complete a task
o After identifying objectives, create test
o Fourth step is to determine the standard of performance (the criteria of mastery). A
teacher may decide the student would need to correctly answer 90% (9/10) of the
problems for each object to demonstrate mastery of objective
o Finally, the test is administered, scored, and interpreted
o Another advantage of a teacher-made criterion test is that it can be developed for any
of the skills targeted for instruction that are typically taught in a sequential order such
as independent living skills like dressing or home performance-based skills like using a
washing machine
Curriculum Based Assessment (CBA)
o CBA involves the measurement of a student’s performance in terms of the expected
curriculum outcomes of the school
o The content of the instrument is based on the student’s curriculum
o There are many difference procedures that fall under the general category for
curriculum-based assessment
o Five different models of CBA:
Curriculum and instruction-based assessment
Curriculum-based assessment for instructional designs
Curriculum-based evaluation
Criterion-referenced curriculum-based assessment
Curriculum-based measurement
o The steps in developing a criterion-referenced curriculum-based assessment are very
similar to the steps in developing a criterion-referenced test. The steps are:
Identify skill(s) to be measured
Identify objectives
Develop test items
Determine standards of performance
Administer and interpret the curriculum-based assessment instrument
o Typically, a chart is developed that incudes the sequential skills and the page numbers in
the curriculum where the skills are introduced
o Frequently 3 separate tests are developed that measure the same skills
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Document Summary

Mulitdimensional nature- it is important tat the age of the student and the severity of the disability be considered when planning and conducting functional educational assessment. Informal assessment: instruction deision making- techniques for this purpose include criterion-referenced testing and criterion-referenced curriculum-based assessment. Informal assessment: montiroting progress- techniques for this purpose include observation, portfolio assessment, and curriculum-based measurement. Accommodatinos and laternate assessment- idea mandates that all students participate in statewide and district assessments or be given a more appropriate alternate assessment. Assessment by functional skill area- areas to be assessed could include independent living skills, communication skills, social skills, basic academic skills. Considering the severity of the disability will have an impact on the assessment, procedure, instruments, and techniques that are used. Important component of this mandate is that accommodations be made for students with cids such as alternate assessment procedures. Informal assessment: instructional decision making: criterion-referenced tests help provide information about which specific skills should be targeted for instruction.

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