Textbook Notes (368,389)
Canada (161,858)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3850 (88)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3850
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 1- Understanding Intellectual Disabilities Historical Perspectives - Before 1800, having an intellectual disability was not an urgent problem because those with more severe disabilities were either killed or died of natural causes at an early age - Earliest written reference to intellectual disabilities was in 1552 B.C., in a time where severe head injuries were not uncommon - Evidence that some surgical procedures were conducted on these skulls to “free” the evil spirits causing these behaviours - Primitive tribes viewed those with disabilities as an economic drain, as they consumed food/water but did not contribute th - In the 6 century political authority determined that cripples should be helped, and distinguished between mental illness and intellectual disparities - Early 20 century reproductive sterilization debate began; fear of disabilities promoted support for methods that would “control it” (sterilization and isolation) Disciplines and Professions - Disciplinary perspectives and contributions o People with intellectual disabilities are similar to those without in their need for love, independence, support and respect o Benefit to a greater degree from services like medicine, education, psychology, etc - Terminology o Characterization of intellectual disabilities has moved from a genetically determines and incurable condition to a more fluid conceptualization which includes biomedical causes as well as environmental and social o Only 20% of intellectual disabilities is caused by biomedical factors and incidence of milder forms of intellectual disabilities is much higher for people of low SES (support for environmental influence) - Contributions of biological and medical sciences o A physician is frequently the first professional to identify, diagnose and counsel parents of children with intellectual disabilities o Medical research is another important area, and as a result it has not become possible to implement procedures that prevent some forms of intellectual disabilities (ex: phenylketonuria) o Advances in genetics have allowed prospective parents who may be carriers of defective genes to undergo genetic screening and receive counseling regarding the likelihood of having a child with the defect o Psychiatry is also involved in dealing with intellectual disabilities - Contributions of the behavioural sciences o Three important areas in which psychology has contributed are  Intelligence theory and testing, Learning theory research, Interpersonal social aspects o This is partly a result of experimental psychology o Anthropology focused little on these disabilities, but added information about adaptation of disabled people to their environment o Sociology has viewed these disabilities from concepts of social competence and deviance o The law has also been an important force, which operates in an adversarial role - Contributions of education o The role of education in intellectual disabilities is primarily one of providing effective research-based instruction o Contributions have been to  Identify needs, Stimulate research and theory, Coordinate and deliver instruction and related services o Identifying children with intellectual disabilities was one of the earliest efforts  IQ test was first developed, then it was recognized that social factors were also important in determining a child’s present and future performance levels o Educators act as a catalyst core, stimulating the efforts of the disciplines and then using their findings - Disciplinary collaboration o Lack of interdisciplinary collaboration results in les effective service delivery o 2 factors have prompted the progress of bridging the gaps among perspective  People with intellectual disabilities being served are the ultimate beneficiaries of improved cooperation  Realization that something can actually be done to promote interdisciplinary collaboration o Cooperation is also important at the practitioner level- the contact point between the service delivery system and the person with an intellectual disability o Inclusion (placing children in general education classes) requires collaboration between general and special educations and other team members (ex: psychologists) Intellectual Disabilities as a Concept - Intellectual disabilities always implies a reduced level of intellectual capacity and the concept of intelligence has always played a central role in defining intellectual disabilities - Social competence has also been an important aspect of the definition - Intellectual disabilities are studied from so many disciplinary perspectives that this too has caused a problem for creating one single definition - The lack of an effective genera concept of intellectual disabilities has impeded the overall prepress of service delivery Intellectual Disabilities: a Definition in Transition - The American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) definition: o Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual function and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social, and adaptive skills o Add to this definition are 5 assumptions  Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environment typical of the individuals age peers and culture  Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as difference in communication, sensory, motor and behavioural factors  Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strength (possess gifts as well as limitations)  Important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports  With appropriate personalized support over a sustained period the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improve - The importance of adaptive behaviour and inclusion in the community has been evident but the measurement has been a challenge - Concerns about assessment as ethnic minorities are overrepresented among those diagnosed - Individuals behaviour
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3850

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.