PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Vocational Rehabilitation Act Of 1973, Intellectual Disability, Person-Centred Planning

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Chapter 9 - Transitional Years
- Adolescence is a time of transition that encompasses personal, social, and educational experiences
- They work toward emancipation from the family unit while developing social and educational skills that help them gain greater
acceptance in society
- Goals during this time of individuals with intellectual disabilities are guided towards employment and preparation for life as an
adult
- Results from studies of special education graduates suggest that these adults were unable to participate fully in community
activities, had little or no social life outside family or primary care givers, and were isolated form peers without disabilities
- The vast majorities of these adults were not employed
- Components of an effective high school program include a comprehensive curriculum that focuses on employment preparation,
the teaching of adaptive skills for adult life, and instruction in academic skills where appropriate
- Secondary education programs should also incorporate inclusion with peers who are not disabled, consistent parental
involvement, and the implementation of systematic transition planning
- A person with an ID is usually seen as one who consumes services, rather than one who contributes to the community
- Employment assists in removing this image and in placing the person in the role of a contributor
- Community based training- training that focuses directly on the activities to be accomplished in the community work setting
rather than on the development of skills in the classroom
- Vocational Rehabilitation Act- created in 1973 a federal law establishing vocational training as a mandatory service for all
qualified persons with disabilities
- Section 504- contains basic civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities, which makes it illegal to discriminate against
these individual in access to vocational training and employment
- Career education- begins in the early elementary years and continues throughout high school. It’s purpose is to make work,
either paid or unpaid, a meaningful component of the student’s life. Described as “a process that focuses on the life roles for
individuals as students, workers, consumers, family members, and citizens.”
- Several career education models have been developed, one of which is the life- centers career education model. Bolin’s model
consist of several competencies, experiences, and stages clustered into three curriculum areas: daily living, personal social
skills, and occupational guidance
- Work experiences- varies according to the philosophy of each particular program. Some programs begin work experiences in
the school setting and eventually ease the student into community settings; others may have students work in the community
immediately.
- Before work placements are made, the student’s ability and interests are evaluated carefully
- The primary purpose of work experience is not to develop specific vocational skills, but rather to enable the student to develop
the work habits and interpersonal skills necessary to get and keep any job.
- Community referenced employment preparation- these do not support the premise that people with a ID must have acquired a
certain level of skills prior to entering community work settings. This approach focuses directly on the activities to be
accomplished in the community work setting, rather than on the development of skills in the classroom.
- Research has indicated that people with intellectual disabilities, including those with moderate and severe disabilities, can work
in a community employment setting with adequate training and support.
- Self Determination- the ability to problem solve and make decisions, develop an understanding of sex role expectations, and
take care of personal experience and hygiene
- Socialization training- instructional approach focused on developing positive interpersonal relationships with family and peers
as well as acquiring behaviors appropriate in a variety of community settings
- Access to social events is a critical need for adolescents with intellectual disabilities, but the challenges for these events are
transportation, and planning and financing social activities
- Learning self-determination helps adolescents with ID to play a major role in choosing and achieving their goals as they make the
transition into adult life, it also helps them understand the barriers they may face
- Sexual interest is a defining characteristic of adolescence, and for high school it represents the difficult challenge of identifying
what role, if any, the school will have in providing instruction in this area
- Some believe sex education should be the responsibility of the schools, while others believe it is the responsibility of the parents
- Adolescence with an ID may have difficulties asking for help when puberty occurs, and have trouble locating resources
- For many adults with ID television may be the only consistent leisure experience
- However this trend is changing as more communities and schools are creating programs specifically designed for individuals
with disabilities. These may include physical activity programs, and therapeutic recreation programs
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Document Summary

Adolescence is a time of transition that encompasses personal, social, and educational experiences. They work toward emancipation from the family unit while developing social and educational skills that help them gain greater acceptance in society. Goals during this time of individuals with intellectual disabilities are guided towards employment and preparation for life as an adult. Results from studies of special education graduates suggest that these adults were unable to participate fully in community activities, had little or no social life outside family or primary care givers, and were isolated form peers without disabilities. The vast majorities of these adults were not employed. Components of an effective high school program include a comprehensive curriculum that focuses on employment preparation, the teaching of adaptive skills for adult life, and instruction in academic skills where appropriate. Secondary education programs should also incorporate inclusion with peers who are not disabled, consistent parental involvement, and the implementation of systematic transition planning.

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