PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Intellectual Disability, Natural School, Adaptive Learning

27 views4 pages
Chapter 8 - The Elementary School Child with Intellectual Disabilities
For many parents, the challenges of intellectual disabilities first become a reality when their child enters school.
o A developmental of a year or maturational lag may have only appeared slight before, often because of the absence of
physical or health problems.
o The confrontation of academic and social demands may allow for the child to become compounded if proper
educational services and supports are not provided.
For children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities, such as Down syndrome, it is more than likely that they have
already been diagnosed and in treatment for three years.
Since the 1970’s goals for public education have changed to incorporate the needs of children with intellectual disabilities:
o 1) Raise the functioning level of the child to the next highest developmental level regardless of the severity of the
disability
o 2) Develop an adaptive fit between the student and the learning environment
Adaptive Fit: Compatibility between demands of a task or setting and a person’s needs and abilities.
For children with severe disabilities the emphasis is not on academic learning but on the development and application of skills
that increase independence with the school, home, and community (ex. self-help skills, mobility, and communication).
Cognitive Development:
Piaget: 2-7years as the period of preoperational thought; 7-11years as the period of concrete operation.
Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) move through the same states of development as their peers but at a slower rate.
Children with mild ID may be delayed as long as 3-4 years.
Children with moderate ID may not reach the most basic stages of concrete operations until later adolescence.
Children with severe ID may fixate at the sensorimotor and preoperational stages and never reach the more advanced periods.
Learning Characteristics:
Children with IDs perform well below average on tasks of learning and retention when compared to peers without IDs.
Memory:
o One of several factors can be attributed to the above fact. One includes the inability to focus on relevant stimuli in a
learning situation.
o Short-term Memory: The ability to recall material over a period of seconds or minutes.
Research results on short-term memory tasks are unclear: some say children with IDs perform similarly to
those without and others state that children with IDs are delayed.
All research agrees that children with IDs take longer to understand the nature of a task.
o Possible ways to enhance short-term memory in children with IDs:
Teach as often as possible in the setting where you want the behaviours to occur
Reduce extraneous environmental stimuli, which tend to distract students, and increase stimulus value of the
task
Present each component of stimuli clearly and with equivalent stimulus value initially
Begin with simpler tasks, moving to the more complex
For more see p228
o Information Processing Theories: How a person processes information from sensory stimuli to motor output.
This theory is the one most commonly used by cognitive psychologists to explain long-term memory.
Sternberg described the memory deficits of people with IDs as the underdevelopment of metacognitive
processes.
Such processes are used for problem solving, monitoring how well a strategy works once
implemented, and evaluating the results.
Researchers say children can be taught these processes.
Self-Regulation:
o Self-Regulation: The ability to regulate one’s own behaviour.
To do this, one must be able to develop efficient learning strategies, such as the ability to rehearse a task. Many
rehearse to remember a certain task however research shows that people with IDs appear unable to apply this
skill.
o While seemingly unable to find, monitor, and evaluate the best strategy they can be taught to change their control
processes.
Distribution of Practice:
o Distributed practice in a learning situation enhances the learning performance of children with IDs
o Naturally Distributed Trials: Learning trials that may occur, as the skill would normally be performed in a natural
school or home routine.
May improve both acquisition of a skill and its generalization to another setting.
Learning Concrete and Abstract Concepts:
o Children with IDs are able to more easily grasp concrete vs. abstract concepts in learning situations.
Ex. the child will grasp the concept more readily if it’s a natural object vs. a picture of the object.
Ex. ride a bus vs. look at pictures.
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 4 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter 8 - the elementary school child with intellectual disabilities. For children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities, such as down syndrome, it is more than likely that they have already been diagnosed and in treatment for three years. Adaptive fit: compatibility between demands of a task or setting and a person"s needs and abilities. For children with severe disabilities the emphasis is not on academic learning but on the development and application of skills that increase independence with the school, home, and community (ex. self-help skills, mobility, and communication). Piaget: 2-7years as the period of preoperational thought; 7-11years as the period of concrete operation. Children with intellectual disabilities (id) move through the same states of development as their peers but at a slower rate. Children with mild id may be delayed as long as 3-4 years. Children with moderate id may not reach the most basic stages of concrete operations until later adolescence.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes