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PSYC 3850 (88)
Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3850
Heidi Bailey

Chapter 2: Diversity Issues - Departure from normal functioning o Lower intellectual performance and reduced functioning in social skills - Difficulty defining acceptable behaviour among various cultural groups o Primarily represent views of majority - Cultural diversity plays major role in causation, assessment, prevention, and placement and treatment in intellectual disabilities - Diagnosed as having an intellectual disability when their behaviour is related to cultural difference o Self-fulfilling prophecy – labeled as having an intellectual disability and will over time begin to function as such - Children’s performance levels reflect expectations of their teachers Associated Influences - Influenced by current environment and one we grew up in - Culturally diff populations associated w/ intellectual disabilities by virtue of environment conditions beyond control of the people shaped by them (e.g. poor health care and poverty) - Inherent where there is cultural and ethnic diversity, such as social customs or mores and language differences o Literal perspective of the term differences  Behaviour predominant in one culture may not be in another Poverty - Strongest influence on sociocultural environment - Impoverished circumstances found more among ethnic minorities - 12 mill children poor = high risk environment for difficulties - Ethnic minorities at disadvantage o Lower educational and occupational expectations o Correlation b/w poverty and poor school performance - Effects of poverty complex interaction of factors o Detrimental physical components of the environment, children’s self-perception of competence, teachers’ assessment of effort, and other environmental influences - Early preschool programs have beneficial effect on poor children’s cognitive development and school success - Increases chance of childhood malnutrition and exposure to toxic agents o May lead to homelessness, contributing to irregular school attendance, chronic health probs, and developmental delays - Effects type and level of healthcare and nutrition that builds physical systems - Children who begin development years in unfavourable circumstances have higher probability of continued slower or abnormal development and being labeled as having intellectual disability - Environment presents context of health risk, health risk behaviours and increased jeopardy for premature mortality - Poor adults from racial minority and parents of children w/ intellectual disability show evidence of chronic stress o Chronis stress and depression related to poverty and magnify risk for children - Do not have health care resources available to others Cultural-Social Mores - Role in perception of others o Influence overall view of a person’s level of functioning - US educational system follows value system of white cultural majority o Control how a youngster approaches, acts, and performs in school - Influence the treatment of individuals w/ health problems and disabilities and the services sought for o Conceptualization of intellectual disabilities vary culture to culture o Beliefs and superstitions play role in acceptance o Some parents from cultural minority groups may be reluctant to join w/ school personnel in plann
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