PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Intellectual Disability, Malnutrition, Cultural Bias

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Chapter 2
Denise’s Dilemmas
9 year old African American moving from an all black school to a dominantly middle-class white school
After the transfer, the child’s marks began dropping and got into fights.
People with intellectual disabilities are represented with lower academic performance and social skills
Misdiagnosis of intellectual disability on a person of what is actually a cultural difference is a result of the
self-fulfilling prophecy
The self-fulfilling prophecy states that if a person is labeled as having intellectual disability, the person will
function as one who has an intellectual disability even if it is not the case
Associated Influences
Factors such as environmental conditions (health care, poverty) is associated with intellectual
disabilities, as well as social customs/mores and language differences
Poverty
Poverty is found more in ethnic minorities than their white counterparts
Minority children from poor environment tend to have lower occupational expectations than
Caucasians
Malnutrition, harmful environmental substances, homelessness and developmental delays are effects of
poverty that affect academic success
Poverty limits the health care that kids get during crucial periods of growth in their lives; this results in
improper development
Poverty also magnifies depression and chronic stress, which in turn can cause intellectual disabilities
Cultural-Social Mores
Mores influence the overall view of a person’s level of functioning; person can be seen as having
intellectual disability or not
Cultural and social mores influence how difficult accepting certain disability conditions can be
Language
Language differences may be incorrectly interpreted as intellectual disability
Example: Student having English as a second language will have a fair amount of difficulty
comprehending a teacher teaching in English; resulting in a lower academic ability
Issues of Assessment and Intervention
Testing for intellectual disability can be bias against minorities groups, which results in more
youngsters from minority backgrounds to appear more frequent in disability categories
Cultural bias results in misleading conclusions that are based on cultural background as opposed
to mental abilities
Norm-referenced measurement procedures uses normative data based on cultural majority, which
can cause assessment bias
Assessment bias comes from the comparison of the minority individuals to the norm group (norm
group typically being of majority Caucasians)
Since the norm group is not representative (having few minorities) it creates bias
A thorough interview may be required for students of different cultures in order to educate them
properly
Human Development and Multicultural Issues
Genetic, environmental influences affect human development favorably or unfavorably
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Document Summary

People with intellectual disabilities are represented with lower academic performance and social skills self-fulfilling prophecy. The self-fulfilling prophecy states that if a person is labeled as having intellectual disability, the person will function as one who has an intellectual disability even if it is not the case. Factors such as environmental conditions (health care, poverty) is associated with intellectual disabilities, as well as social customs/mores and language differences. Poverty is found more in ethnic minorities than their white counterparts: minority children from poor environment tend to have lower occupational expectations than. Caucasians: malnutrition, harmful environmental substances, homelessness and developmental delays are effects of poverty that affect academic success. Poverty limits the health care that kids get during crucial periods of growth in their lives; this results in improper development. Poverty also magnifies depression and chronic stress, which in turn can cause intellectual disabilities.

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