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Chapter 9

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PSYC 3850
Heidi Bailey

Chapter 9 - Transitional Years - Adolescence is a time of transition that encompasses personal, social, and educational experiences - They work toward emancipation from the family unit while developing social and educational skills that help them gain greater acceptance in society - Goals during this time of individuals with intellectual disabilities are guided towards employment and preparation for life as an adult - Results from studies of special education graduates suggest that these adults were unable to participate fully in community activities, had little or no social life outside family or primary care givers, and were isolated form peers without disabilities - The vast majorities of these adults were not employed - Components of an effective high school program include a comprehensive curriculum that focuses on employment preparation, the teaching of adaptive skills for adult life, and instruction in academic skills where appropriate - Secondary education programs should also incorporate inclusion with peers who are not disabled, consistent parental involvement, and the implementation of systematic transition planning - A person with an ID is usually seen as one who consumes services, rather than one who contributes to the community - Employment assists in removing this image and in placing the person in the role of a contributor - Community based training- training that focuses directly on the activities to be accomplished in the community work setting rather than on the development of skills in the classroom - Vocational Rehabilitation Act- created in 1973 a federal law establishing vocational training as a mandatory service for all qualified persons with disabilities - Section 504- contains basic civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities, which makes it illegal to discriminate against these individual in access to vocational training and employment - Career education- begins in the early elementary years and continues throughout high school. It’s purpose is to make work, either paid or unpaid, a meaningful component of the student’s life. Described as “a process that focuses on the life roles for individuals as students, workers, consumers, family members, and citizens.” - Several career education models have been developed, one of which is the life- centers career education model. Bolin’s model consist of several competencies, experiences, and stages clustered into three curriculum areas: daily living, personal – social skills, and occupational guidance - Work experiences- varies according to the philosophy of each particular program. Some programs begin work experiences in the school setting and eventually ease the student into community settings; others may have students work in the community immediately. - Before work placements are made, the student’s ability and interests are evaluated carefully - The primary purpose of work experience is not to develop specific vocational skills, but rather to enable the student to develop the work habits and interpersonal skills necessary to get and keep any job. - Community referenced employment preparation- these do not support the premise that people with a ID must have acquired a certain level of skills prior to entering community work settings. This approach focuses directly on the activities to be accomplished in the community work setting, rather than on the development of skills in the classroom. - Research has indicated that people with intellectual disabilities, including those with moderate and severe disabilities, can work in a community employment setting with adequate training and support. - Self Determination- the ability to problem solve and make decisions, develop an understanding of sex role expectations, and take care of personal experience and hygiene - Socialization training- instructional approach focused on developing positive interpersonal relationships with family and peers as well as acquiring behaviors appropriate in a variety of commun
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