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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3850

CHAPTER 4 CAUSES OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIESIntroduction o Chapter covers major known causes of intellectual disabilities and their syndromes o Distinction between problems that arise because something went wrong organic causes ofor because of chance assortment of genes familial disabilitiesintellectual disabilities ROLL OF THE DICE Prior Learning AssessmentGenes found in our chromosomes they contain encoded instructions for the assembly and development of the bodyChromosomes long strands of DNA found in the nucleus of each cell of the bodyDNA composed of four simple repeating units The order in which these units are arranged on the DNA make up a codethe code directs the construction of complex molecules within the cellThese molecules then help to create other complex moleculesbringing the important principle in the debate about whether intelligence is due to nature vs nurture your genes vs your learning environmenty Interaction between genetic information and the environment Expression of the genetic code depends on the right environment info encoded in our genes is passed to us from our parents nature and genetic code relies on cellular amino acids outside the nucleus to string these codes together environment outside the cell nucleusHumans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 in total 22 of these pairs are called autosomes which consist of similar strands of DNA Pairs of autosomes are grouped into seven groups depends on rough similarities in appearance but we can still distinguish between chromosomes in order to for example locate errors in genetic coding on a particular chromosomeA1 to 3 E16 to 18 B4 5F19 20 C6 to 12 G21 22 D13 to 15 Sex chromosomeX Y Because of the pairs genetic info for the construction of a certain complex molecule exists in two copies with the exception of the sex chromosomesFemales have XXchromosome pairs similar to each other Males have XYinherit one X from mother one Y from father Y chromosome contains information that determines maleness Huge number of genes dealing with the construction of our brains highly complex than the rest of our bodies Our brain relates to intelligence so we can say our thinking rests on the brain as much as blood circulation depends on the heart and vessels Model of interaction to relate intelligence to genes in a simplistic waydetermination of eye colour is the working example here
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