PSYC3850 Chapter 1: Chapter 1.docx

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Chapter 1
Historical Perspectives
Before 1800 – having intellectual disabilities was not considered an urgent social
problem because those with disabilities were either killed or died of natural causes
Earlist written reference to ID is dated 1552 bc although evidence of occurrence
before that time period
Human skulls dating to the Neolithic Age indicate that crude brain surgery had
been performed – used to ‘cure’ abnormal behavior
Some humane treatment – 6tth century pop Gregory issues decree instructing the
faithful to assist those who were crippled
Exampel for sterilization is of Martin Kallikak;s descendents – a
Disciplines and Professions
Disciplinary Perspective and Contributions
Core Concept: People with Intellectual Disabilities often need services and
supports from many different professionals
Individuals with ID’s may benefit from a greater degree from professonial help
than other individuals
No single disicipline has the breadth and depth of expertise and resources
necessary to fully support people who have intellectual disabilities
Terminology
Intellectual disabilities – ecompasses a wide range of characteristics; it is both a
label of fact and a label of conjecture
oLabel of fact – must be quantifiable and verifiable
oLabel of conjecture – may include concepts that are as yet only
hypothesize
Only 20% of ID caused by biomedical factors
80% actual cause is uncertain
Environmental maybe because incidence of milder forms of ID is much higher for
people with lower socioeconomic backgrounds
Contributions of Biological and Medical Sciences
Cause is not always clear
Example: some chromosomal abnormalities are not aways inherited (down
syndrome or microcephaly) and environmental factors, such as lead poisoning and
infection can contribute to or even cause neurological problems
Medical research can help with preventing some forms of intellectual disabilities
Contributions of the Behavioral Sciences
Three important areas in which psychology has contributes are
(a) intelligence theory and testing
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(b) learning theory research
(c) interpersonal social aspects
experimental psychology has helped with this progression
Edgerton (anthropologist) described anthropological study of intellectual
disabilities nonexistent and argued for drastically expanded efforts – his later
studies help with understanding ID’s
A lot of their approach is qualitative rather than quantitative that comes from
psychology
The law has also played a role
oCase of Coberrubia vs. san diego unified school district
Challenge special class placements
Contributions of Education
Education has been integrally involved with the challenges associated with
intellectual disabiltiies
The contributions of education in aiding the understanding of ID’s has been to
a. identify needs
a. the first intellectual test was alferd Binet at the request of the French
minister of public education - to determine which children would
likely fail in school programs and thus need special elp
b. stimulate research and theory
a. the need to understand mild intellectual disabilities has influenced
research efforts to increase knowledge about the importance of
environmental infleucnes on intelligence
c. coordinate and delivery instruction and related services
Disciplinary Collaboration
It is important to make it interdisciplinary because individually they cannot as
much progress so they are making more progress filling the gaps
At least 2 factors have prompted this progress
1. Experience has shown that people with intellectual disabilities being served
are the ultimate beneficiaries of improved cooperative
2. a second factor promoting change is the realization that something can
actually be done to promote interdisciplinary collaboration
core concept: serving children in an inclusive educational setting emphasizes the
need for collaboration among professionals
oteacher and school psychologist interactions
Implementing the principle of inclusion for all children with disabilities involves
placing a significant number of such children in general education classrooms
Concepts, Definitions, and Classification
Intellectual Disabilities as a Concept
Argument relating around the definition of intelligence as well as social
competence
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Document Summary

Historical perspectives: before 1800 having intellectual disabilities was not considered an urgent social problem because those with disabilities were either killed or died of natural causes, earlist written reference to id is dated 1552 bc although evidence of occurrence before that time period, human skulls dating to the neolithic age indicate that crude brain surgery had been performed used to cure" abnormal behavior, some humane treatment 6tth century pop gregory issues decree instructing the faithful to assist those who were crippled, exampel for sterilization is of martin kallikak;s descendents a. Intellectual disabilities ecompasses a wide range of characteristics; it is both a label of fact and a label of conjecture: label of fact must be quantifiable and verifiable, label of conjecture may include concepts that are as yet only hypothesize, only 20% of id caused by biomedical factors, environmental maybe because incidence of milder forms of id is much higher for.

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