PSYC3850 Chapter 3: Chapter 3 .docx

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Chapter 3 Assessment Issues and
Issues and Concepts
Assessment Use
careful attention to the prop use of assessment instruments has a great impact on
the tesults of measurement
concepts need to be in place before evaluation can take place
concerns have been raised about limited realtionships between assessment
information and instructional planning designed for children
unfortunately, many instrucments on the market do not give adequate attention to
sound measurement practices
Assessment referencing
this refers to what standards or comparisons are used for a child’s performance
distinction between norm and criterion referenced evaluation
a child’s score on a test might be compared to others or simply represent an
important instructional goal to be reached
Norm referencing
research and repeated testing of individuals at various ages usually establish
norms or databased for comparison
assessment in which the performance of an individual is compared with that of
others is known as norm referenced evaluation
Mental age (for example) is a concept that is norm referenced
Serves a purpose
oIt was the foundation for both researchers and practioners
However, its useful for some purposes but not for others
Educators for instance frequaently found that scores from this form of evaluation
did not translate easily into teaching plans- same occurred for professionals
working with people with intellectual diabilitiy when it came to placement,
planning and programming
oEspecially when it came to the uniqueness of individuals
Criterion referencing
Is nearly synonymous with what norn referenced evaluation is not
Assesses specific skill areas individually, rather than generating a score based on
a composite of several skills
Assessment tasks or tests are usually arranged in sequence of difficulty and a
person’s functioning is viewed in terms of absolute performance level or the
actual number of operations completed
Level of performance is evaluated in two ways
oFirst by professional indicating their ability
oSecond by comparing level of ability in one area to another area (between
skill areas)
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Criterion has been applied in many ways most pertinent applciations being the
direct linkage between assessment and classroom instruction
Curriculum based assessment – uses the sequential objectives of the students
curriculum as the reference or criterion for evaluating progress
oApproach emphasize the link between instructional objective and
assessment improving the potential for instuional decision making
Objectives reference measurement **
Neither type in isolation results in a totally effective evaluation process
Criterion is useful for specific instructional programming – a need not served well
by norm
ID’s usually seen in bigger part of world and this world is norm referenced
Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formative – in this framekwork is assessment that focuses not on a desired
ultimate behavior but rather on the next step in an instructional program –
frequently part of instructional program
Summative – involves assessment of terminal behaviors and evaluates a childs
performance at the end of a given program
These have been combined with norm and criterion reference evaluation
Assessment Bias
Cultural biases occur
Absence of assessment specialist with appropriate training and background
Tests norms and scientist who develop them more frequently reflecting the
cultural majority than minority subgroups
Evidence continues to indicate that factors such as ethnicity influence a
youngster’s likelihood of being diagnosed as having a disability, and minority
children still represent a disproportionaely large segment of the population
identified as having ID’s
Is it assessment bias or problems within education?
Early Life
this section examines approaches early in life from bith to 2 years
evaluation a this point in life is conducted for at least two related purposes (a)
identification of children who already show intellectual disabilities in their
development (b) identification of children who have high probability of showing
intellectual disabilities later
Screening concepts
only those who now have intellectual disabilities or exhibt behaviors that suggest
they wil later have id’s are sorted out by early screening
genetic counseling – monitored or suggested to not have babies used if parents
have high prob of giving birth with children with id’s
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but genetic counseling, prenatal assessment, and selective abortion have lnog been
controversial about morals and ethics
children born with severe id’s make for easier identification but positive action is
more difficult but early identification better than nothing as it helps with planning
try to predict future behavior of child with current tasks but not always ood
mild disability presents greatest challenges to early screening than severe
areas that becoming more important – parent’s language style, attitudes about
achievement, and general involvement with the young child
Genetics, Other Assessment, and Prevention Issues
certain disabilities even may be prevented if action is taken early enough
prevention focuses particularly on pregnancies, anticipated prgenaieis or newborn
children who are thought to be at risk for intellectual disabilities
pregnancy situations that are at greater risk for developmental accidents:
ofetus that might come from poor environmental circumstances such as
toxins, drug,s alcohol raditions and other
oones that involve trauma to the fetus
oother risks are genetic such as phenylketonuria- represent this type of
abnormatively and represent a circumstance that is amenable to prenatal
screening and intervention
oage of mother plays a factor as well like down syndrome
one of negative cons of screening is labels – even worse if labeled on child at
Early Life Assesssment
detection of id’s that have results in prenatal assessment
may result in very early intervention but also generate ripples of bioethical
Physical condition of baby and mother is assessed by obstetrician
One level works on assessing the mother and baby directly through technology
and another is low- level technology like looking at the mothers background
medical history, blood pressure, uterus size, urine status
If the area for fetus not optimal, mothers diet altered or food they eat is altered
High-risk pregnancies more frequent among women who cannot afford adequate
health care
Extensive evaluation may be need throughout pregnancy is the mothers health
background isn’t good
Biological and chemical characteristics of the fetus can be measured – diagnostic
analyses of this type are not possible with every type of retardation
Tay sachs dises is commonly found in Ashkenazi Jewish orgins so this should
prompt fetal status
Maternal age is important for those with down syndrome
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