PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Brainstorming, Decision-Making, Universal Design

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PSYC*3850 Sunday, March 27, 2016
Chapter 10: Instructional Content
What do all students need to learn?
There is no shortage of voices telling educators what should be taught in contemporary
Most Americans share a common set of beliefs that students should graduate from
schools with:
oBasic math competence
oFundamental knowledge of science and technology
oPositive dispositions involving active citizenship
oLiteracy skills
oPractical skills enabling students to be self-supporting after graduation
oProblem-solving skills and skills that assist learners “learn how to learn”
oAn understanding of the importance of global situations to historically vexing
No child left behind: requires periodic assessment of students, schools and gauges
progress in achieving these national goals
A Nation at Risk- 1983, challenged educators and public to examine increasing numbers
of students unprepared for society characterized by increasing complexity, diversity and
reliance on technology. Implications:
oCommon core state standards (CCSS)
oLocal educators required to declare extent to which every student in spec ed will
access the general education curriculum
oStates are required to demonstrate that students with disabilities are included in
statewide assessments
oStates base financial rewards and punishers for schools on student test
performance aka. high-stake tests
What do students with CIDs need to learn?
Because students with CIDs have various challenges to learning, they also are expected to
gain a set of critical skills
In 1974 a new organization, AAESPH, holds its first conference to advocate for those
with the most severe disabilities -now known as TASH
Independent Living Skills
Young children with and without CIDs have a large portion of their instructional
programs devoted to these
Those with severe disabilities typically have goals that target assistance or participation
in many self-care routines
Skills often fall into 4 broad categories:
oHygiene and toileting
oHome living (maintaining clothes, dishes, living environment, food prep)
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PSYC*3850 Sunday, March 27, 2016
oPersonal mobility
Distinction should be made between skills that need to be taught versus skills that need to
be strengthened
Video technology has been used for both instruction and support systems
For those with mild CIDs mobility goals include finding locations within the community,
then using whatever transportation system is available to travel to and from the location
oSame goals for severe CIDs but includes arranging transportation by phoning an
For young children mobility goals include finding one’s classroom, locating an open
desk, or moving between learning centers within a classroom
oMiddle school- finding and returning from cafeteria, gym, library, etc.
oSecondary- learn to access community sites
Mild CIDs- communication difficulties often result in instructional interventions targeting
speech problems such as articulation and voice problems such as abnormal pitch or voice
May also require interventions for language disorders such as delayed language and
undeveloped vocabulary
Severe CIDs- communication intervention involves more basic communication functions
oMay be non-symbolic (e.g. changes in voice, pitch or body tone to indicate an
emotional response)
oSymbolic but nonverbal (e.g. picture books or letter boards)
oCompletely verbal in nature
When planning, attention is paid to issues of form vs. function
oMust decide whether to improve the form of speech and language, or to
strengthen a student’s ability to use his or her language to influence surroundings
Universal design for learning promotes:
oMultiple means of representation
oMultiple means of engagement
oMultiple means of expression
Communication problems are often the basis for severe problem behaviour
oUnable to communicate interests= use of problem behaviour as a means of
expressing frustration, discomfort, or distrust
oTo solve, establish and consistently implement a functional communication
system for each learner
Social Interactions and Relations
Social interaction and social perception are often considered core areas of instruction
Social skills: means by which people can make connections to others, exchange
information and ideas, make their needs and desires known, and enter into (and maintain)
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