PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Standard Score, Striatum, Intellectual Disability

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PSYC 3850
CHAPTER 3
ASSESSMENT FOR IDENTIFICATION
NOTE: Assessment procedures here are written as summaries; if need more detail, they
are written in full-length throughout the chapter.
Many children are not identified until they attend school and begin to lag behind
their classmates. Most children with CID’s caused by non-biological factors are
identified through the use of educational and psychological assessment. Most states
identify the person as having an intellectual deficit along with an adaptive behavior
deficit.
Legal and Ethical Considerations
IDEA provides very specific suggestions regarding assessment procedures including
the use of assessment information to identify persons. Several are discussed below:
- You should not use any single procedure as the sole criterion for determining
whether a child has a disability
- You should use reliable and valid instruments
- You should ensure that tests are selected and administered so as not to be
discriminatory on a racial or cultural bias.
- You should ensure that tests are administered in the language and form for
likely to yield accurate information
- Tests should only be administered by trained and knowledgeable personnel
along with in accordance with instructions from the test producers
More details on pages 64 and 65 if needed.
Norm-Referenced Testing: An Overview
Norm Referenced Test: is a test in which a person’s performance is compared to a
specific reference group usually by age or grade level. The referenced group is
known as the “standardization sample” and it provides the norms on which to base
comparison. This type of test is used when you are interested in finding out how a
person performs in a particular area relative to others. It is important that the
sample should large and nationally representative.
Generally the first step in scoring and interpreting these tests is to determine the
raw score (obtained score) This usually involves determining the total number of
correct responses or a weighted score based on the quality of responses. The raw
score by itself has no real meaning; it is converted into a number of derived scores
based on the scores obtained by the persons in the sample.
Types of Scores
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The most appropriate derived score to use when making important educational
decision (as a rule) such as determining the eligibility is the standard score. It is a
transformed raw score with the same mean and SD. (More details on page 66).
Technical Characteristics
Validity: extend to which a test measures what it is supposed too.
Reliability: a tests consistency (ex: test-retest)
Standard Error of Measurement (SEM): represents an attempt to account for the
variability or error involved in the administration and scoring of a test. Because no
test is absolutely reliable, a persons true score on a test is never known. The
obtained score is the estimate of the true score. You should interpret scores as
bands rather than as absolutes. The latest AIDDD manual suggests that the SEM be
considered when determining the IQ cut off.
Conceptual Models of Intelligence
Cattell helped provide the early interest in measuring intelligence based on its
various definitions (Table 3.1 on page 68). In late 1800s, he made the first formal
attempt to operationalize and measure intelligence and was the first to use the term
mental test. He viewed intelligence as a combination of physical, perceptual and
mental skills. Spearman using a statistical procedure known as factor analysis
proposed a two factor theory of intelligence including a general factor (g) and
specific factors (s). Thurstone disagreed with Spearman and believed that there
were actually several primary factors including the following:
- Verbal Comprehension
- Word Fluency
- Number Facility
- Spatial Visualization
- Associative Memory
- Perceptual Speed
- Reasoning
Raymond Cattell
- Fluid intelligence (Gf): pure general ability (abstract thinking, drawing,
deductive/inductive reasoning along with mental operations)
- Crystalized intelligence (Gc): long established discriminatory habits
(acquisition of knowledge)
Carroll is the latest to modify the Cattell-Horn Model. He believed that there was
merit to Spearman’s general intelligence. He created a three striatum model.
- 69 narrow specific abilities
- 8 broad ability factors (Gf and Cf)
- General ability
Das proposed that intelligence involves two primary processes
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Document Summary

Note: assessment procedures here are written as summaries; if need more detail, they are written in full-length throughout the chapter. Many children are not identified until they attend school and begin to lag behind their classmates. Most children with cid"s caused by non-biological factors are identified through the use of educational and psychological assessment. Most states identify the person as having an intellectual deficit along with an adaptive behavior deficit. Idea provides very specific suggestions regarding assessment procedures including the use of assessment information to identify persons. You should not use any single procedure as the sole criterion for determining whether a child has a disability. You should ensure that tests are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural bias. You should ensure that tests are administered in the language and form for likely to yield accurate information.

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