PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Cerebral Palsy, Microcephaly, Sexually Transmitted Infection

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PSYC 3850
CHAPTER 5
ENVIRONMENTAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CAUSES
Environmental causes may be subdivided into those that happen:
- Prenatally: during pregnancy
- Perinatally: during the birth process
- Postnatally: following birth
Two types of brain injury:
- Traumatic: affect the person who has already experienced typical develop
- The type that affects the onset of typical development and is considered a
cause of CID’s
Prenatal Causes
Teratogens
They are any agents that cause a defect in developing embryo/fetus. These include:
infections, radiations, maternal malnutrition, and low birth weight. Other risks can
include: maternal age, lack of prenatal case, maternal health problems and drug
abuse. They do not necessarily lead to CID’s.
Infections
Toxoplasmosis: may be carried in raw meat and cat feces. Most dangerous if
acquired during pregnancy. It is associated with eye and retina conditions, cerebral
palsy, hydrocephaly, microcephaly, disturbances in psychomotor development,
seizures, feeding difficulties and CID’s in untreated kids.
Rubella (Measles): dangerous when contracted during the first trimester of
pregnancy. It is associated with: eye problems, deafness, irritability, small head size,
seizures and heart defects. The infant contracts this infection through the placenta.
STI’s
Cytomegalvirus: may lead to symptoms in about 1-10 infants who are exposed
prenatally but up to 90% of those displaying symptoms at birth will have
neurological disorders. It is in the herpes virus group. Symptoms in the fetus may
include: enlarged liver or spleen, microcephaly, deafness.
Syphilis: is a venereal disease that when it is contracted by the mother crosses
through the placenta resulting in dying at or shortly after birth. It is treatable
through administering antibiotics but still may lead to an infection to the child. On
top of neurological disorders the new born may have sensory disabilities and facial
malformations.
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Other STI’s: HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, and HPV.
Radiation
It has been associated with birth defects and also have been found in fetuses of
women who received less exposure. It is most dangerous during the first 2-18
weeks where high rates of brain damage can occur.
Maternal Malnutrition During Pregnancy
In combination with environmental deprivation after birth may be the most
common cause of CID’s in the world. It may have at least 3 major birth effects: low
birth way, preterm birth and intrauterine birth restriction. In turn this can lead too:
neonatal death, short and long term health issues, disabilities and chronic disease.
Malnourishment affects cognitive performance, emotional reactivity along with
social interactions.
Other Factors
Maternal and Paternal Age
Both at extremes, over 40 or under 20. Those under 20 are more likely to give birth
prematurally imposing the infants at risk for delays in cognitive, motor
development, behavior and language.
Lack of Prenatal Care
It increases the risk of prematurity and low birth weight along with premature
rupture of amniotic membranes. The ACOG also stressed that prenatal care is the
primary means for identifying/treating issues affecting pregnancy and birth.
Maternal Health Problems: associated with increased risk for birth defects and
development delays.
Drug and Substance Abuse
Show great risk for embryos and fetuses. Exposure to ecstasy and other
amphetamines may lead to reduced head circumference, low birth weight and
learning problems. Learning problems may occur due to heroin exposure. Alcohol
consumption can affect fetal development at any stage.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): the most serious disorder may result in facial
abnormalities, growth deficits before and after birth, small brains, CNS disorders. It
results from heavy drinking (4 or more drinks per occasion). May also be more
affected if they live in a poor environment.
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Document Summary

Environmental causes may be subdivided into those that happen: Traumatic: affect the person who has already experienced typical develop. The type that affects the onset of typical development and is considered a cause of cid"s. They are any agents that cause a defect in developing embryo/fetus. These include: infections, radiations, maternal malnutrition, and low birth weight. Other risks can include: maternal age, lack of prenatal case, maternal health problems and drug abuse. Toxoplasmosis: may be carried in raw meat and cat feces. It is associated with eye and retina conditions, cerebral palsy, hydrocephaly, microcephaly, disturbances in psychomotor development, seizures, feeding difficulties and cid"s in untreated kids. Rubella (measles): dangerous when contracted during the first trimester of pregnancy. It is associated with: eye problems, deafness, irritability, small head size, seizures and heart defects. The infant contracts this infection through the placenta.

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