PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Intellectual Disability, Functional Skills Qualification, Learned Helplessness

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PSYC 3850
CHAPTER 7
EDUCATIONAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL
AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS
Educational Characteristics
These vary greater among those with CID’s and are influenced by many factors. For
example, the severity of the disability influences the type of educational program
that the student receives. The age of the student, educational environment, teaching
content etc all has an impact. We must consider the educational process itself as this
influences the person and the population in general. Because academic skill deficits
often manifest early in their school careers the need for access to the general
education curriculum as well as an adapted one also becomes a quick need.
Academic Skills
- Talked about in the previous chapter
Conceptual Thinking
Concepts: are abstractions that are the results of assigning objects, people, ideas or
experiences to categories. Learning abstract concepts is often dependent on the use
of metacognitive skills and memory skills. One must be able to make connections
between prior and current learning to develop more complex and abstract concepts
over time. Deficits in executive functioning may also play a role. If persons with
CID’s experience challenges in concept acquisition and storage, it than follows that
they will have a hard time responding to a novel concept (category) members). The
more exemplars the children are exposed too, the better they were able to abstract
the prototypical features despite those that are specific. They have a hard time
retaining these atypical features.
Comprehension Skills
Diminished intellectual capabilities can lead to a deficit in the acquisition of
information and skills as well as the appropriate use. Comprehension of adults with
CID’s could be improved through strategy instruction and should be taught
comprehension skills. Many do not include meaningful literacy skill instructions.
Rather they may be more restricted to sight vocabulary and functional or safety
word recognition and comprehension. Oral reading skills improved through out
school years. Thus, this can be improved with the right support and emphasis in the
right areas. Focusing on what is functional. They often respond to the same
instructional methods however may require more time.
Functional Skills
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This learning can translate into simple, relatively unchallenging learning. Those
skills that if they are not performed in part or in full by the student must be
completed by the student by someone else. What is functional for one student may
not be for another. Those with severe disabilities have limited ability to synthesize
information and skills in an organized useful way and may fail to see the
relationship among bits of information. They have a harder time learning through
observation which could be due to attending skills or a lack of self-regulation. Some
may have multiple disabilities masking their true overall ability to learn.
Psychological Characteristics
Learned Helplessness
It is an acquired tendency to give up easily or not to try at all when faced with new
or difficult tasks. They may develop this if they no longer believe that they have any
control over their own learning and attribute success and failure to factors other
than their own learning efforts. It may also be due to repeated failure, a belief that
others are in control or from having others take care of ones needs unnecessarily.
The adaptation from childhood to adulthood may perceive the person as lazy or
unmotivated, one that does not care about learning also affecting their self-concept.
Characteristics Related to Self-Concept
It is both important in task initiation and completion. How one perceives themselves
is also critical to their long-term development. Having a label may affect this, being
integrated within the larger community may enhance this as opposed to being
segregated.
Characteristics Related to Self-Regulation
It involves the ability to plan and manage time, attend to and concentrate on tasks,
organize information strategically and establish a productive environment and
utilize resources among other skills. Self-regulation is often learned from others
because we tend to model others. The better one is able to do this, the more one is
likely to gain feelings of self-efficacy enhancing one’s performance etc. They should
also seek help when they are having trouble with some homework. They should also
regulate their emotions.
Characteristics Related to Locus of Control
It is one element of psychological empowerment. Those with an external sense of
control tend to look to others for causality for outcomes and for guidance. Those
with an internal sense of control tend to rely more on their own self-guidance and
assume personal responsibility for the outcome. As the age of 8, those with CID’s
tend to have a more external sense of control with it changing little over time. We
tend to fluctuate between both types. It is quite typical for us to look at others when
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Document Summary

These vary greater among those with cid"s and are influenced by many factors. For example, the severity of the disability influences the type of educational program that the student receives. The age of the student, educational environment, teaching content etc all has an impact. We must consider the educational process itself as this influences the person and the population in general. Because academic skill deficits often manifest early in their school careers the need for access to the general education curriculum as well as an adapted one also becomes a quick need. Concepts: are abstractions that are the results of assigning objects, people, ideas or experiences to categories. Learning abstract concepts is often dependent on the use of metacognitive skills and memory skills. One must be able to make connections between prior and current learning to develop more complex and abstract concepts over time. Deficits in executive functioning may also play a role.

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