PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Task Analysis, Battelle Memorial Institute, Job Performance

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Chapter 9
Instructional Assessment
Key points
- Multidimensional nature
oIt is important that the age of the student and the severity of the disability be
considered when planning and conducting functional educational assessments
- Informal assessment: Instructional decision making
oTechniques for this purpose include criterion-referenced testing and criterion-
referenced curriculum-based assessment
- Informal assessment: Monitoring progress
oTechniques for this purpose include observation, portfolio assessment, and curriculum-
based measurement
- Accommodations and alternate assessment
oIDEA mandates that all students participate in statewide and district assessments or be
given a more appropriate alternate assessment
- Assessment by functional skill area
oAreas to be assessed could include independent living skills, communication skills, social
skills, basic academic skills, prevocational/vocational skills, and community living skills.
Multidimensional nature
- Age of the student and the severity of the disability will have an impact on the assessment
procedures, instruments, and techniques that are used
- The assessment should be functional and pragmatic
oIt should focus on the assessment of skills which, when taught, will lead to the greatest
degree of independence
oEx. independent living skills, community living skills, employability skills, basic academic
skills
oEvery assessment should include communication and social skills
- It is important to identify the techniques and procedures used to assess the identified skills to
be evaluated
oSome techniques may be specific to the skill area selected
Norm-referenced techniques
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oOthers can be used un more than one functional skill area
oSome can be used to gather information in virtually any skill area
oInclude a number of informal assessment procedures
Criterion-referenced testing and curriculum-based assessment
- Another important aspect is progress monitoring
oInformal techniques include observation, portfolio assessment, and curriculum-based
measurement
oThey can be used for instructional decision making as well
- There is a legal requirement that all students including those with disabilities, be included in
large-scale accountability assessments
oTesting accommodations must be allowed for students with disabilities
oAlternate assessment procedures are to be used when participation in regular
assessment program is inappropriate, even with accommodations
Informal assessment: Instructional decision making
- Criterion-referenced tests
oAre particularly helpful in providing info on which specific skills should be targeted for
instruction
oThey do not compare an individual’s performance to others
oThey give more specific info on what an individual does or doesn’t know or can or can’t
do
oCriterion-referenced tests cover a more limited domain with numerous items per area
Norm-referenced tests usually cover a broad domain with few items per area
oCan be teacher made or commercially prepared
Teacher made allows for greater flexibility for targeting a specific skill area
But they take time to develop
If a commercial made test targets the desired skills then it can save time
They must be carefully selected to match the student’s needs
- Teacher-made tests
oThe first step in developing a teacher-made criterion-referenced test is to clearly define
the skill areas to be measured
Can be accomplished through identifying appropriate goals for the individual
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oIdentify specific objectives
Using task analysis
Which is the identification and sequencing of behaviours that are
necessary components of the skill required for an individual to complete
a task
oDevelop the test items
oDetermine the standard of performance (the criteria for mastery)
- Curriculum-based assessment
oInvolves the measurement of a student’s performance in terms of the expected
curriculum outcomes of the school
The content of the instrument is based on the student’s curriculum
o5 models of curriculum-based assessment
Curriculum and instruction-based assessment
Curriculum-based assessment for instructional design
Curriculum-based evaluation
Curriculum-based measurement
Criterion-referenced curriculum-based assessment
oCriterion-referenced curriculum-based assessment (CR-CBM)
Uses the task analytic model fond in criterion-referenced tasks and relies on the
curriculum as the content of assessment
The steps in developing a test
Identify skills to be measured
oUsing the student’s curriculum
Identify objectives
oDone by developing the chart of sequential skills
Develop test items
Determine standards of performance
Administer and interpret the curriculum-based assessment instrument
Student’s performance is considered across 3 tests
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