SOAN 2112 Chapter Notes - Chapter chapter 8: Totalitarianism, Utopian Socialism, Bourgeoisie

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WEEKS 1, 2, 3
Zeitlin Chapter 8: Saint Simon
- Saint Simon and Comte – official founders of sociology were influenced by
Bonald and accepted some of his basic assumptions
- Saint Simon sometimes regarded as founder of socialism
- Marx gave him the name “utopian socialist” – Saint Simon lived and wrote
before industrial development had reached critical point at which point the
“contradictions” of capitalism had become clear
- in Marx’s view - Simon could not see the conflict of interest between major
classes of industrial system
treated them as one class with common interest – left bourgeois property
institutions intact in blue print for future society
- Simon had no appreciable difference from an ideological point of view
between ideas of Simon and Comte – both thinkers advanced a sociological
theory that is little more than “scientific” rationale for a totalitarian type of
- Simon was self-educated – help from private tutors (d’Alembert)
- Fought with distinction in American Revolution and had been among first to
advance a scheme for a canal to join Atlantic with Pacific
- Ideas retained to end elements of Enlightenment and Revolutionary thought
– were fused with romantic and conservative elements
- Simon developed before 1814 all major ideas which Thierry and Comte later
claimed their own – including: positivism, industrialism, internationalism, a
“new religion”
- One of the most important social thinkers of the 19th C
- Attributed the great stability of medieval civilization to its universally
accepted religion – viewed historical transformation of European society as
result of forces that been maturing in womb of old order
***growth of science, emergence of an industrial and commercial
bourgeoisie, Protestant Revolution, negative-critical philosophical
movement of Enlightenment – all served undermine the Catholic Church
principles of equality and natural rights were destructive – led to
revolutionary crisis **** spoke in class
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