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SOAN 2111 (44)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 and 5 Zeitlin.docx

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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SOAN 2111
Professor
Linda Hunter

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Chapter 4: Perfectibility through Education – Rousseau’s Emile – and Sophy - he published Emile o in this publication, he advocated breast-feeding and opposed to the swaddling of infants o he was influential in doing this – many mothers starting nursing their own babies - Sophy o The final part of Rousseau’s work that he sets forth his principles for the education of women o The natural differences between the sexes requires that they be educated differently o SOPHY = a woman - Rousseau believes that the human being is naturally good - A child’s earliest education is most importantly and is a women’s work - “If the author of nature had meant to assign it to men he would have given them milk to feed the child.” - A child must be taught how preserve his own life when he becomes a man, how to bear the ups and downs of fortune, how to live, etc. - Human’s are imprisoned by institutions - Refusal of mothers to fulfill their first duty and to nurse their own children = Rousseau thinks this is shameless and unnatural custom - The upper-class woman has not only ceased to suckle her own child, but she also shirks the main duty of motherhood – no substitute for a mother’s love (hence the mother hiring someone to take care of her baby) - Mother = should be the nurse and as the child grows and develops, the real teacher is the father - Freedom of movement is essential (in contrast to a child being swaddled), for that is how the child learns the difference between self and not-self - Second phase of life – Emile no longer has to cry in pain but can say, “this hurts me!” - Children and adults alike enjoy full liberties - He must learn the most important lesson of life: “never hurt anybody” - His body must also develop physically – just as the practice of an art or craft requires tool sufficiently strong to stand use, the senses, limbs and bodily organs must be strong and healthy, for they are the tools of intellect - Rousseau says children are indifferent toward meat (Yes, food), which proves “that the taste for meat is unnatural; their preference is for natural foods, such as milk, fruit, and vegetables…” - Emile has now reached puberty – ready to transfer sensations into ideas - Emile learns about geography – first in his own village and then beyond - Emile learns the exchange of goods and services and essential for any society - Emile must learn a trade benefiting his age and sex - Rosseau says that indoor employments made the body tender and that it’s women’s work o Rosseau says if he were king he wouldn’t allow men to be tailors – that’s a women’s job – why employ intelligent men on such work? - Rousseau decides Emile will learn carpentry – it’s useful and will build muscles – also requires skill - Emile recognizes that it is in fact fate that has placed these human beings in
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