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Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course
SOAN 2111
Professor
Linda Hunter
Semester
Fall

Description
SOAN 2111 Reading Summary: Week 10 By: Alex Underbakke (September 2013) French Enlightenment, Applied Sociology and Statistics: th (November 11-15 ) (Zeitlin: pp. 40); Vindication of the Rights of Woman: • Mary Wollstonecraft’s main argument in her rebuttal of Rousseau is that women deserve social equality with men and should be given the education necessary to achieve it • “The woman who strengthens her body and develops her mind will become the friends, and not the humble dependent of her husband” • Women only seem to look inferior because they are indoctrinated from birth with so- called feminine characteristics: o Passitivity o Kindness o Gentleness o Submission o Spaniel-like affection for brothers, husbands and fathers • Rousseau denies to woman the same physical and intellectual education he gives and offers to man • Rousseau thinks that mothers should recognize that their daughters are made even weaker than nature intended for them to be • Wollstonecraft said = o “bodily strength seems to give man a natural superiority over woman; and this is the only solid basis on which the superiority of the sex can be built: o “two sexes should be the same in nature, if not in degree” o “Woman should be considered not only moral but rational creatures, ought to explore to acquire human virtues (or perfections) by the same mean as men) So in summary, this is an argument (as we can already tell) against Rousseau by Wollstonecraft that women should have the same ability to achieve education and be considered at the same level as men in that sense. (McDonald: pp.131-134): Probability, Quantification & Social Science + Jean-Antoine Caritat (marquis) de Condorcet (1743-1794) and Sophie Grouchy (marquise) de Condorcet (1764-1822) Probability, Quantification & Social Science (131) - Two advocates of a probability-based, quantified, social science were Jean-Antoine Caritat de Condorcet and Germaine de Stael. Jean-Antoine Caritat (marquis) de Condorcet (1743-1794) and Sophie Grouchy (marquise) de Condorcet (1764-1822) The first couple of italicized paragraphs in this reading talk about Condorcet, a social science mathematician. He proposed new systems for education, which included the social sciences. After his death his daughter saw his publications, and ended up publishing a lot of her father’s work. - Condorcet dealt with practical problems of data organization and application of theory in actual hypothesis testing. - Condorcet proposed innovations in both the collection and coding of social science data - Distinguishing carefully between ethical and empirical components in his writing before this became common - He urged that objective measures be developed in comparing men and women o He also argued for controls for education, to see how the advantages men had were not product of nature but of social institutions - Condorcet admitted that almost all opinion and judgements which direct our conduct rest on probability, more or less strong, but are always evaluated according to a vague, almost unconscious sentiment or uncertain and rough glimpses. o By limiting oneself to reasoning without calculation, one risks falling into errors, even prejudices, either by according false generalizations which do not follow from them. - Soon arrive at the state where progress in the social and political sciences, as in the physical, would be impossible without rigorous methods of calculation - Condorcet used the term “mathematique sociale” in the singular to imply that social science was but one branch of mathematics. - He included social science on the proposed curriculum. - Believed in universal education that would provide opportunities for the children of poorer citizens to develop their talents - Against war, stating, “to regard war as the most dreadful of scourges, the most terrible of crimes” (134). - Condorcet supported women’s equality o He called for political and legal rights for women o “Either everybody has their rights or nobody does” o Condorcet further argued for a role for women in scientific research th - Condorcet divided history into 9 periods, plus a 10 for the future - His purpose was to explain the why & how – not just the what of the events o The rise and fall of ideas, theories, and whole schools of thought were chronicled. - Fundamental analysis was a belief in the unity of method. Natural science assumed necessary and constant laws, so did the development of the intellectual and moral faculties of human beings (134) o Condorcet had practical advice to give here, including suggesting population control French Revolution: Overview and Sociological Implications: Course Reading Package: Nisbet excerpt from “The Two Revolutions” (pp.30-37) - Fundamental ideas of European sociology is best understood as responses to the problem of order created at the beginning of the 19 century by the collapse of the old regime, after the blows of the industrialism & revolutionary democracy. - Elements of sociology = same forces and tensions that also produced the outlines of modern liberalism, conservatism, and radicalism - Kinship, land, social class, religion, local community, and monarchy varied elements of power, wealth, and status had changed during this time since the middle ages. - The nature of community, the location of power, the stratification of wealth and privilege, the role of the individual in emerging mass so
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