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Chapter 2

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
Scott Schau

Chapter 2 Self- report data (S-data)- the information a person reveals. Clearly, individuals may not always provide accurate information about themselves for a variety of reasons, such as the desire to present them in a positive light Self- Report Data (S-data) - Can be obtained through a variety of means o Including interviews that pose questions, periodic reports to record events as they happen o Questionnaires- individuals answer a series of questions - Good reasons for using self report o Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else- they can report feelings, emotions, desires, beliefs and private experiences - Can take a variety of forms, ranging from open-ended “fill in the blanks” to forced-choice true-or-false questions o Can be referred as unstructured (open-ended, such as “Tell me about the parties you like the most) o And Structured (I like loud and crowded parties- True or False) Observer- Report Data (O- Data) - Everyday life we form impressions and make evaluations of others in whom we come into contact with - O-data- capitalize on these sources for gathering information about a person’s personality o Advantage- observers may have access to information not attainable through other sources (impressions a person makes on others, his or her social reputation) o Advantage 2- can have multiple observers used to assess each individual, whereas in self-report only one person provides information o Use of multiple observers is known as a inter-rater reliability Selection of Observers - 2 strategies in selecting them 1. Use professional personality assessors who do not know the participant in advance 2. Use individuals who actually know the target participants Naturalistic Observation - In naturalistic observation, observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of the lives of their participants o Example- A child might be followed throughout an entire day, or an observer may sit in a participant’s home - Naturalistic observations offers researchers the advantage of being able to secure information in the realistic context of a person’s
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