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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
D Walters

Soan 2120 Chapter Notes 2012­12­11 Chapter 1 – Doing Social Research Social Research: a process in which people combine a set of principles, outlooks, and ideas with a collection of specific practices, techniques, and strategies to produce knowledge Alternatives to Social Research Authority: you accept something as being true because someone in a position of authority says it is true or because it in an authoritative publication, you are relying on authority as a basis for knowledge Limitations: it is easy to overestimate the experience of people, authorities may not agree, authorities may not be equally dependable. Sometimes organizations or individuals give an appearance of authority so they can convince others to agree with something that they might not otherwise agree to Tradition: tradition means you accept something as being true because “it’s the way things have always been” Limitations: even if traditional knowledge was one true, it can become distorted as it is passed on, and soon it is no longer true. People may cling to traditional knowledge without real understanding, they assume that because something may have worked/been true in the past it will continue this way Common Sense: you rely on what everyone knows and what “just makes sense” Limitations: allows logical fallacies to slip into thinking. Common sense can originate in tradition. It is useful and sometimes correct, but it also contains errors, misinformation, contradiction, and prejudice Media Myths: Television shows, movies and newspapers are important sources of information Limitations: they do not accurately reflect social reality. Tend to perpetuate the myths of a culture Personal Experience: “seeing is believing”. Has a strong impact and is a powerful source of knowledge Limitations: personal experience can lead you astray, something similar to an optical illusion can occur Overgeneralization: occurs when some evidence supports your belief, but you falsely assume that it applies to many other situations, too. Selective Observation: occurs when you take special notice of some people or events and tend to seek out evidence that confirms what you already believe and ignore contradictory information Premature Closure: occurs when you feel you have the answer and do not need to listen, seek information, or raise questions any longer. Halo Effect: when we overgeneralize from what we accept as being highly positive or prestigious and let its strong reputation or prestige “rub off” onto other areas How Science Works Social research involves thinking scientifically about questions about the social world and following scientific processes Data: the empirical evidence or information that one gathers carefully according to rules or procedures Quantitative: expressed as numbers Qualitative: expressed as words, visual images, ages, sounds or objects Empirical Evidence: refers to observations that people experience through the senses (touch, sight, smell, hearing, taste) Scientific Method: refers to the ideas, rules techniques and approaches that the scientific community uses Research Process: Social research proceeds in a sequence of steps, most studies follow seven steps: Select Topic Focus Question Design Study Collect data Analyze Data Interpret Data Inform others Dimensions of Research Use of Research: how research is used, between applied and basic research Basic Research: basic social research advances fundamental knowledge about the social world, focuses on refuting or supporting theories that explain how the social world operates, what makes things happen, why social relations are a certain way, and way society changes. Provides a foundation for knowledge that advances understanding in many policy areas, problems, or studies. It provides major break-thoughs that make significant advances in knowledge The painstaking study of broad questions Applied Research: designed to address a specific concern or to offer solutions to a problem identified by an employer, club, agency, social movement, or organization Rarely concerned with building, testing or connecting to a larger theory, developing a long term general understanding or carrying out a large-scale investigation that might span years They usually conduct a quick, small scale study that provides practical results for use in the short term Applied research results are less likely to enter the public domain in publications and may be available only to a few decision makers or practitioners. Because applied research often has immediate implications or involves controversial issues, it often generates conflict Types of Applied Research: Evaluation Research Study: applied research designed to find out whether a program, new way of doing something, a marketing campaign, or policy is effective. They measure the effectiveness of a program, policy, or way of doing something and often use several research techniques Limitations: the reports of research rarely go through a peer review process, raw data are rarely publicly available and the focus is narrowed to select inputs and outputs more than the full process by which a program affects people. Selectively use or ignore evaluating findings Action Research Study: Action research is applied research that treats knowledge as a form of power and abolishes the division between creating knowledge and using knowledge to engage in political action. 5 characteristics The people being studied actively participate in the research process The research incorporates ordinary or popular knowledge The research focuses on issues of power The research seeks to raise consciousness or increase awareness of issues The research is tied directly to a plan or program of political action Social Impact Assessment Study: a researcher who conducts social impact assessment estimates the likely consequences of a planned intervention or international change to occur in the future Forecasts how aspects of the social environment may change and suggest ways to mitigate changes likely to be adverse from the point of view of an affected population. Impacts are the differences between a forecast of the future with the project or policy and without the project or policy Purpose of Research Exploratory: In exploratory research a researcher examines a new area to formulate precise questions that he or she can address in future research. Descriptive: descriptive research presents a picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting or relationship. Focuses on the “how” and “who” questions. A great deal of this research is descriptive, surveys, field research, content analysis, historical-comparative research Explanatory: explanatory research identifies the sources of social behaviours, beliefs, conditions, and events: it documents causes, tests theories, and provides reasons. It builds on exploratory and descriptive research Ex: Explorative research would discover a new kind of abuse by parents, descriptive research would document that 10 percent of parents abuse their children in this manner and describes the conditions it would occur under, and explanatory research would focus on why certain parents are abusing their children in this manner Time Dimension in Research Cross Sectional: most social research studies are cross sectional, they examine a single point in time or take a one-time snapshot approach. Cross-sectional research is usually the simplest and least costly method. Longitudinal: researchers using longitudinal research examine features of people or other units at more than one time. It is usually more complex and costly than cross-sectional research, but it is more informative Time Series: a longitudinal research in which the researcher gathers the same type of information across two or more time periods, individuals may change Panel Study: a powerful type of longitudinal study in which the researcher observes exactly the same people, group or organization across multiple time points Cohort Study: a cohort study is similar to a panel study, but rather than observing the exact same people, the study focuses on a category of people who share a similar life experience in a specified time period Case Studies: a researcher examines, in depth, many features of a few cases over a duration of time with very detailed, varied, and extensive data, often in qualitative form Data Collection Techniques Quantitative Data Collection Experiments: experimental research closely follows the logic and principles found in natural science research; researchers create situations and examine their effects on participants Surveys: asks people questions in a written questionnaire or during interviews and recorded answers Content Analysis: a technique for examining information, or content, in written or symbolic material, researcher first identifies a body of material to analyze and then creates a system for recording specific aspects of it Existing Statistics: In existing statistics research, a researcher locates previously collected information, often in the form of government reports or previously conducted surveys, then reorganizes or combines the information in new ways to address a research questions Qualitative Data Collection Field Research: most field researchers conduct case studies looking at a small group of people over a length of time. Begins with a loosely formulated idea or topic, selects a social group or natural setting for study, gains access and adopts a social role in the setting, and observed in detail Historical-Comparative Research: examines aspects of social life in a past historical era or across different cultures. Researchers who use this technique ma focus on one or more cultures, or mix historical periods or cultures Chapter 2: Theory and Social Research 2012­12­11 How Social Scientific theories work Social theories explain recurring patterns, not unique or one time events Social theories are explanations for aggregates: collections of many individuals cases or other units Social theories state a probability, chance or tendency for events to occur, rather than state that one event must absolutely follow another. What is Theory? Social Theory: a system of interconnected abstractions or ideas that condense and organize knowledge about the social world. Almost all research involves theory, so the question isn’t whether you should use theory, it’s how you should use it Blame Analysis Blame Analysis: a type of counterfeit argument presented as if it were a theoretical explanation. It substitutes attributing blame for a causal explanation that is backed by supporting empirical evidence Blame analysis assumes there is a party or source to which a fixed amount of responsibility can be attached It gives an account instead of a logical explanation. Presents an unfavourable situation, identifies a responsible party, then provides selective evidence that shields certain parties Parts of Theory Concept: an idea expressed as a symbol or in words. All theories contain concepts. There are two parts to a concept: Symbol and Definition We create concepts from personal experience, creative thought, or observation Concept Clusters: concepts are rarely used in isolation, usually they form interconnected groups, called concept clusters. This is trues for concepts in everyday language as well as for those in social theory Classification Concepts: classifications are partway between a single, simple concept and a theory. They help to organize abstract, complex thoughts. To create a new classification, a researcher logically specifies and combines the characteristics of simpler concepts The Ideal Type: a well-known classification, a pure, abstract model that defines the essence of a phenomenon. Mental pictures that define the central aspect of a concept, not explanations. Researchers use them to build theories. Ideal types are abstract concepts that bring together several narrower, more concrete concepts. Qualitative researchers often use ideal types to see how well observable phenomenon match up to the ideal model. Scope: Concepts vary by scope: some are highly abstract, others are middle level of abstraction and some are concrete Abstract Concepts have a wide scope, more concrete concepts apply to fewer situations Chapter 2: Theory and Social Research 2012­12­11 Assumptions: concepts contain built in assumptions, which are statements about the nature of things that are not observable or testable. To deepen understanding of a concept is to identify the assumptions on which it is based Chapter 2: Theory and Social Research 2012­12­11 Ex. The concept “book” assumes a system of writing, reading and the existence of paper Relationships: theories specify how concepts relate to one another. When a researcher empirically tests or evaluates such a relationship, it is called a hypothesis. After many tests of a hypothesis, it is considered a proposition: a relationship in a theory in which the scientific community starts to feel is likely truthful Aspects of Theory Direction of Theory Deductive: begin with an abstract, logical relationship among concepts, then move toward concrete empirical evidence. Inductive: begin with detailed observations of the world and move toward more abstract generalizations and ideas. Building a theory from the ground up. Grounded Theory: a part of inductive reasoning, in which a researcher builds ideas and theoretical generalizations based on closely examining and creatively thinking about the data. A widely used approach in qualitative research. Uses a systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived theory about a phenomenon, to build a theory which is faithful to the evidence Range of Theory Empirical Generalization: the least abstract theoretical statement and has had very narrow range Ex: more men than women choose engineering as a college major Middle Range Theory: slightly more abstract than empirical generalizations or a specific hypothesis. They focus on a specific substantive topic area, include multiple empirical generalizations, and builds a theoretical explanation Ex: girls who suffer physical/sexual abuse experience self-blame and guilt that inhibits them from developing healthy social networks/forming stable relationships, which leads them to stay single or experience marital instability as adults. Theoretical Framework: More abstract than middle-range theories. Sometimes called a paradigm. Includes structural functional theory, exchange theory, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory Levels of Theory Micro Level: deals with small slices of time, space, or numbers of people. The concepts are usually not very abstract Meso Level: links macro and micro levels. Theories of organizations, social movements, and communities are often at this level Macro Level: concerns the operation of larger aggregates such as social institutions, entire cultural systems, and whole societies. It uses more concepts that are abstract. Forms of Explanation Explanation: a theory’s primary purpose is to explain. Many people confuse prediction with explanation. Chapter 2: Theory and Social Research 2012­12­11 Theoretical explanation: a logical argument that tells us why something occurs. It refers to a general rule or principle Ordinary explanation: makes something clear or describes something in a way that illustrates it and makes it intelligible Prediction: a statement that something will occur. It is easier to predict than to explain, and an explanation has more logical power than prediction because good explanations also predict A weak explanation can produce an accurate prediction, a good explanation depends on a well-developed theory and is confirmed in research by empirical observations Causal Explanation: the most common type of explanation, used when the relationship is one of cause and effect. Usually occur in a linear form (A causes B, B causes C, etc.) Three things are needed to establish causality Temporal Order: means a cause but come before an effect. It is not always easy to establish temporal order. Simple causal relations are unidirectional, operating in a single direction from the cause to the effect. Most studies examine unidirectional relations. More complex theories specify reciprocal-effect causal relations, a mutual causal relationship or simultaneous causality. Some researchers call unidirectional non-recursive, and reciprocal effect relations recursive. Association: A researcher needs an association for causality. Two phenomena are associated if they occur together in a patterned way or appear to act together. Correlation has a specific technical meaning, it is a statistical measure that indicates the amount of association, but there are many ways to measure association Elimination of plausible alternatives: eliminating alternatives is an ideal because eliminating all possible alternatives is impossible. A researcher tries to eliminate major alternative explanations in two ways: Built in design: experimental researchers build controls into the study design itself to eliminate alternative causes. Measuring possible alternative causes (controlling): researchers use statistical techniques to learn whether the causal variable or something else is operating on the effect variable. Positive Relationship: means that a higher values on the causal variable goes with a higher value on the effect variable Negative Relationship: means that a higher values on the causal variable goes with a lower value on the effect variable Structural Explanation: A researcher specifies a sequence of phases or identifies essential parts that form an interlocked whole. Used with three types of theories: network, sequential, and functional. Interpretive Explanation: the purpose of an interpretive explanation is to foster understanding. Interpretive theorists attempt to discover the meaning of an event or practice by placing it within a specific social context. Chapter 2: Theory and Social Research 2012­12­11 Three Major Approaches to Social Science Paradigm: an integrated set of assumptions, beliefs, models of doing good research, and techniques for gathering and analysing data. It organizes core ideal, theoretical frameworks and research methods Positivist Approach: Sees social science research as fundamentally the same as natural science research, it assumes that social reality is made up of objective facts that value free researchers can precisely measure and use statistics to test causal theories Put great value on the principle of replication. Replication occurs when researchers or others repeat the basics of a study and get identical or very similar results. If they do not get similar findings, it is because of 5 reasons The initial study was an unusual fluke or based on misguided information Important conditions were present in the initial study, but people were unaware of their importance so they were not specified The initial study or the repeat was sloppy Initial study or repeat was improperly conducted The repeat study was a fluke Nomothetic: is means explanations use law or law-like principles Quantitative, and positivists generally see the experiment as the ideal way to do research Seek precise quantitative measures, test causal theories with statistics, and believe in the importance of replication Interpretive Approach: unlike the positivist approach, interpretive researchers say that human social life is qualitatively different from other things studied by science Constructionist: holds that human social life is based less on objective, hard, factual reality than on the ideas, belief, and perceptions that people hold about reality. People socially interact on what they believe is real, not on what is objectively real. Interpretive researchers are sceptical of the positivist approach to produce precise quantitative measures of objective facts, they tend to trust qualitative data Not likely to adopt a nomothetic approach, but instead favour an ideographic form of explanation and use inductive reasoning. Idiographic: literally means specific description and refers to explaning an aspect of the social world by offering a highly detailed picture r description of a specific social setting, process or type of relationship Verstehen: the desire of a researcher to get inside the worldview of those he or she is studying Critical Approach: blends and objective/materialist with a constructionist view of social reality. Emphasizes multilayered nature of social reality. Has an activist orientation and favours action research Chapter 3: Ethics in Social Research 2012­12­11 Ethics include the concerns, dilemmas, and conflicts that arise over the proper way to conduct research. Ethics help to define what is or is not legitimate to do, or what moral research procedure involves Must balance the pursuit of knowledge and the rights of research participants or other in society. Must also balance potential benefits against potential costs Why be Ethical? Scientific Misconduct: Occurs when a researcher falsifies or distorts the data or the methods of data collection, or plagiarizes the work of others. It also includes significant, unjustified departures from the generally accepted scientific practices for doing and reporting on research. Research Fraud: occurs when a researcher fakes or invents data that he or she did not really collect, or fails to honestly and fully report how he or she conducted a study Plagiarism: occurs when a researcher steals the ideas of writings of another or uses them without citing the source. Plagiarism also includes stealing the work of another researcher, an assistant, or a student and misrepresenting it as ones own. Some Research is clearly unethical, but is not illegal. A professional researcher and the research participants or employee-assistants are in a relationship of unequal power and trust. The researcher has power over the employees/participants, who give the researcher trust in return. Ethical Issues Involving Research Participants Acting ethically requires that a researcher balance the values of advancing knowledge against the value of non-interference in the lives of others The law of codes and ethics: Never cause unnecessary or irreversible harm to subjects Secure prior voluntary consent when possible, and never unnecessarily humiliate, degrade, or release harmful information about specific individuals that was collected for research purposes. Physical Harm, Psychological Abuse, and Legal Jeopardy Physical Harm is rare. The researcher accepts moral and legal responsibility for injury due to participation in research and terminates a project immediately if he/she can no longer guarantee the physical safety of the people involved Researchers can place people in highly stressful, embarrassing, anxiety-producing situation. They should never create unnecessary stress or stress that lacks a very clear, legitimate research purpose A researcher is responsible for protecting research participants from increased risk of arrest. When a researcher learns of illegal activity when collecting data, they must weigh the value of protecting the relationship and the cost of harm occurring to innocent people. If a researcher covertly observes and records illegal behaviour, then supplies this information to law- enforcement, he/she is violating ethical standard. At the same time, failing to report a crime may result in being charged as an accessory. Chapter 3: Ethics in Social Research 2012­12­11 Examples of Ethical Controversy Stanley Milgram’s Obedience study (caused severe guilt and emotional stress) Laud Humphrey’s Tearoom Trade study (consent was not obtained, legal actions could have been filed against participants) The Zimbardo Prison Experiment (physical abuse and severe mental abuse were almost inevitable) Other Types of Harm Anxiety and discomfort Negative impact on careers, reputations, incomes of research participants Deception Social researchers follow the ethical principle of voluntary consent: never force anyone to participate in research, and do not lie to anyone unless it is necessary and the only way to accomplish a legitimate research purpose Informed Consent A fundamental ethical principle of social research: never coerce anyone into participating. Participants must sign a statements giving informed consent: an agreement by participants stating they are willing to be in a study and they know something about what the research procedure will involve. Optional for most surveys and field research, but mandatory for experimental research. Contains the following A brief description of the purpose and procedure of the research, including the expected duration of the study A statement of any risks or discomforts expected A guarantee of anonymity and confidentiality The identification of the researcher and where to receive information about subject’s rights A statement that participation is completely voluntary and can be terminated without penalty A statements of alternative procedures that may be used A statement of any benefits or compensation provided to subjects, and the number of subjects involved An offer to provide a summary of findings Special Populations and New Inequalities Special Populations: people who lack necessary cognitive competency to give valid informed consent or people in a weak position who might cast aside their freedom to refuse to participate in a study Incompetent People: it is unethical to involve incompetent people (children, mentally disabled) in research unless two conditions are met Legal guardian gives written permission The researcher follows all standard ethical procedures to protect participants from harm Chapter 3: Ethics in Social Research 2012­12­11 New Inequalities: another type of harm occurs when one group of people is denied a service or benefit as a result of participating in a research project Privacy, Anonymity, and Confidentiality Privacy: to be ethical, a researcher violates privacy only to the minimum degree necessary and only for legitimate research purposes Anonymity: means that people remain anonymous or nameless. Researchers protect privacy by not disclosing a participant’s identity after information is gathered Confidentiality: can include information with participant names attached, but the researcher hold it in confidence or keeps it secret from public disclosure Mandated Protections of Research Participants Many governments have regulations and laws to protect research participants and their rights IRB: Institutional Review Board, a committee of researchers and community members that oversees, monitors and reviews the impact of research procedures on human participants and applies ethical guidelines by reviewing research procedures at a preliminary stage when first proposed. Ethics and The Scientific Community Code of Ethics: formalize professional standards and provide guidance when questions arise in practice Traced to the Nuremberg Military Tribunal code of ethics developed as a response to the cruelty of concentration camp experiments, outlines ethical principles and rights of human subjects: Principle of voluntary consent Avoidance of unnecessary physical and mental suffering Avoidance of any experiment where death or disabling injury is likely Termination of research if its continuation is likely to cause injury/death The principle that experiments should be conducted by highly qualifies people The results should be for the good of society and unattainable by any other method Ethics and The Sponsors of Research Whistle Blowing: involves the researcher who sees an ethical wrongdoing and who can not stop it after informing superior and exhausting internal avenues to resolve the issue. He/she must then turn to outsiders and inform and external audience An ethical researcher will refuse to participate if he or she is told to arrive at specific results as a precondition for doing research Sponsors can legitimately set some conditions on research techniques used and limit costs, but the researcher must follow generally accepted research methods, and must give a realistic appraisal of what can be accomplished for a given level of funding Chapter 3: Ethics in Social Research 2012­12­11 If a sponsor demands a biased sample of leading survey question, the ethical researcher should refuse to cooperate. An ethical researcher has a moral obligation to expose and stop the abuse Suppressing Findings: a common situation for many applied researchers. In sponsored research, negotiations for conditions for releasing findings prior to the study and signing a contract to that effect is common Concealing the Sponsor: when reporting of publishing results, and ethical mandate is very clear: a researcher must always reveal the sponsor who provides funds for a study. Politics of Research Historically, the political influence over social research has included preventing researchers from conducting a study, cutting off or redirecting funds for research, harassing individual researchers, censoring the release of research findings, and using social research as a cover or guise for covert government intelligence actions Most uses of political or financial influence to control social research share a desire to limit knowledge creation of restrict the autonomous scientific investigation of a controversial topic Some people defend or advance positions and knowledge that originate in deeply held ideological, political or religious beliefs, and fear contradiction Powerful interests want to protect or advance their political financial position, and fear social researchers might yield findings showing that their actions are harmful to the public Some people in society do not respect the ideals of science to pursue truth Value Free, Objective Research Value Free: means free of everyone’s values except those of science Research that is free from any prior assumptions, theoretical stand, or value position Research that is conducted free of influence from an individual researcher’s personal prejudice Positivism puts high value on such research, and interpretive approach serious questions whether its possible. Objective: following established rules or procedures that some people created, without knowing who they are or why they created these rules Focusing only on what is external or visible, or it can mean following clear and publicly accepted research procedures and not haphazard, personal ones Public Sociology Four ideal types of social research Policy Professional Critical Public Chapter 5 – Sampling 2012­12­11 Introduction Chapter 5 – Sampling 2012­12­11 Quantitative researchers: primary goal is to get a representative sample to generalize accurately to the population Tend to use sampling based on theories of probability sampling Two motivations for using probability/random sampling Saving time and cost Accuracy Qualitative researcher: focus less on sample’s representativeness, focus on how the sample illuminates key features of social life Tend to collect nonprobability sampling Nonprobability Sampling Qualitative researchers use nonprobability or non-random sampling They rarely determine the sample size in advance and have limited knowledge about the larger group or population from which the same is taken Haphazard Sampling: Get any case, in any manner that is convenient Can produce ineffective, highly unrepresentative samples and is not recommended Cheap and quick Ex. newspaper asking readers to fill out survey and send back in. Quota Sampling: Get a pre-set number of cases in each of several predetermined categories that will reflect the diversity of the population, using haphazard methods An improvement over haphazard A researcher first identifies a relevant category of people, then decides how many to get in each category Researcher can ensure that some differences are in the sample Purposive/Judgemental Sampling: Get all possible cases that fit particular criteria, using various methods Used in situations in which an expert uses judgement in selecting cases with a specific purpose in mind Chapter 5 – Sampling 2012­12­11 Appropriate in three situations: To select unique cases that are especially informative To select members of a difficult to reach population To identify particular types of cases for in-depth investigation Snowball Sampling: Get cases using referrals from one or a few cases, and then referrals from those cases, and so forth Also called networking, chain referral, reputational Begins with one/a few people and spreads out on the bases of links to the initial cases Represented with a sociogram Use snowballing in combination with purposive sampling Deviant Case Sampling: Get cases that substantially differ from the dominant pattern Also called extreme case sampling, similar to purposive The goal is to locate a collection of unusual/peculiar cases that are not representative of the whole Sequential Sampling: get cases until there is no additional information Similar to purposive, with one big difference: In purposive, researcher tries to find as many cases as fit the description as possible until all resources are exhausted In sequential, researcher gathers cases until the amount of new information is filled Probability Sampling Sampling Element: the unit of analysis or case in in a population Population: the larger pool from which sampling is taken To define population, researcher must specify the unit being sampled, the geographical location and the temporal boundaries Sampling Ratio: ratio of the size of the sample to the size of the population Chapter 5 – Sampling 2012­12­11 One can never freeze a population to measure it, must make best estimate Size of sample is less important than whether or not it accurately represents the population Sampling Frame: a specific list that closely approximates all the elements in the population Telephone directory, tax records, driver’s license records… Almost always inaccurate, can include some people outside the population and leave out some people inside the population Crucial to the outcome Population Parameter: any characteristics of a population Use Statistics to estimate population parameters Random Sampling Random: refers to a process that generates a mathematically random result Random Samples: most likely to yield a sample that truly represents a population Allows researchers to calculate the relationship between the sample and the population Sampling Error: the deviation between sample results and a population parameter due to random process Types of Probability Samples Simple Random: Create a sampling frame for all cases, then select cases using a purely random process The easiest random sample, all other types are modeled on this Sampling Distribution: is a distribution of different samples that shows the frequency of different sample outcomes from many separate random samples The pattern in the sampling distribution suggests that over many separate samples, the true population parameter is more common than any other result Central Limit Theorem: As the number of different random samples in a sampling distribution increases towards infinity, the pattern of samples and the population parameter become more predictable. A researcher estimates the chance that a particular sample is off or unrepresentative by using information from the sample to estimate the sampling distribution This information, along with the central limit theorem constructs confidence intervals. Chapter 5 – Sampling 2012­12­11 Systematic: Create a sampling frame, calculate the sampling interval (1/k), choose a random starting place, then take ever 1/k case Simple random sampling with a shortcut for random selection Sampling Interval: the inverse of the sampling ratio Will yield virtually equal results as simple random sampling Stratified: Create a sampling frame for each of several categories of cases, draw a random sample from each category, then combine the several samples First divide the population into strata on the basis of supplementary information Draw a random sample (simple/systematic) from each strata Guarantees a representativeness or fixes the proportion of different strata within a sample Produces samples that are more representative of the population than simple random sampling, if the stratum information is accurate Used when a stratum of interest is a small percentage of the population and could be missed with simple random. Cluster: Create a sampling frame for larger cluster units, draw a random sample of the cluster units, create a sampling frame for cases within each selected cluster unit, then draw a random sample of cases, and so forth. Addresses two problems Researchers lack a good sampling frame for a dispersed popul
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