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Canada (161,680)
SOAN 2120 (129)
D Walters (55)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2120
D Walters

SOAN 2120 Chapter 8 – Analysis of Quantitative Data Dealing with Data Coding Data: systematically reorganizing raw numerical data into a format that is easy to analyze using computers Codebook: document describing the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can use Precoding: placing the code categories on the questionnaire 4 ways to get raw quantitative data into a computer 1. Code sheet (gather info then transfer it onto grid format) 2. Direct-entry method, including CATI (input information while it is being collected) 3. Optical scan (scantron) 4. Bar code Cleaning Data: verifies the accuracy of coding - Possible code cleaning/wild code checking: checking for impossible codes (F= 1, M=2 and you find a 4 in the data) - Contingency cleaning/consistency checking: cross-classifying 2 variables and looking for logically impossible combinations (education cross-classified by occupation. Grade 8 failure recorded as legitimate medical doctor= coding error) Statistics: ways to manipulate numbers that represent data from a research project Descriptive statistics: numerical data Measures of Central Tendency Mode: nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio data Median: not used at nominal level Mean: most widely used, only used with interval or ratio level data Measures of Variation Zero variation: Percentiles: Standard deviation: “average distance” between all scores and the mean Z-score/standardized score: number of standard deviations from the mean Covariation: things go together or are associated Independence: no association or relationship between variables 3 Techniques help decide whether a relationship exists between two variables 1. Scattergram/plot/graph 2. Cross-tabulation/percentaged table 3. Measures of association/statistical measure that express the amount of covariation by a single number What can you learn from a Scattergram? Form: Independence (no relationship), linear (creates a straight line), curvilinear (U or S curve) Direction: positive or negative Precision: the amount of spread in the points on a graph Bivariate Tables Cross-tabulation: the cases are organized in the table on the basis of two variables at the sa
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