Society: refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture. Gerhard and jean lenski describe how societies have changed over the past 10, 000 years and point to the importance of technology in shaping society. Karl marx: took a long historical view of societies, probing the roots of social conflict that arises from the positions of owners and workers in the production of material goods. Max weber tells a different tale, showing that the power of ideas shapes society. Weber contrasted the traditional thinking of simple societies with emile durkheim helps us see the different ways that traditional and modern societies hang together. The work of gerhard and jean lenski helps us understand the great differences among societies that have existed throughout human history. Socio-cultural evolution: changes that occur as a society gains new technology. Societies with the simple"s technology have little control over nature, so they can support only a small number of people.