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SOC 1100 (295)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

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4/3/2013 5:03:00 PM  Chapter Four  Society  Society: people who interact in a defined territory and share a culute  Three sociology founders o 1) Gerhard and Jean Lenski  society and technology o 2) Karl Marx  society in conflict o 3) Max Webber  the power of ideas shapes society o 4) Emile Durkheim  how traditional and modern societies hang together  Gerhard and Jean Lenski: Society and Technology o Sociocultural evolution: the changes that occur as a society gains new technology o Society range from simple to the technologically complex o Societies simple in technology tend to remain small and change slowly o More technologically complex societies support bigger populations, more affluence and constant change HUNTER/GATHERER SOCIETIES  Hunting and gathering: the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation  A few societies persist today in Africa and Malaysia  They depend on the family and on moving around (nomadic)  The sexes regarded as having the same economic importance  Few formal leaders, and social equality  Often ravaged by forces of nature  Men; hunt, are the protectors  Women; caregivers HORTICULTURAL AND PASTORAL SOCIETIES  Horticulture: use of hand tools to raise crops  Pastoralism: the domestication of animals  Material surplus: more resources than needed to support the population  Could support a much larger population  Leads to a division of labour and inequality 
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