Textbook Notes (368,450)
Canada (161,883)
Sociology (1,112)
SOC 1100 (295)
Chapter 4

Principles of Sociology Chapter 4 Social Organization September 25.docx
Premium

12 Pages
128 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1100
Professor
John Irwin
Semester
Fall

Description
Social Organization:  Focuses on roles, identities, groups, organizations o Roles /identities as the main ways in which social structure contrains and changes us  Part of social structure we enact/internalize,  Basic element of social structure, who we are, how we lead our lives  Meeting of social structure, culture, personality Social Nature of Status Role and Identity:  Identities are the names we give ourselves (female, male, child , adolescent, adult, friend, worker, athelete; unsociable, ordinary, unusual, o Who we announce ourselves to be word. ,manner. Appearance, that enable others to respond to or place us in particular ways  First placement birth; children learning meaning of this placement by others, identify with it, and begin to present themselves accordingly. o Adults cannot interact comfortably with others without mutual identification in terms of their gender;  Lifetime of establishing identities, we act in parts, playing out scripts organized in the form of normative expectations called roles; which are attached to social positions/statuses; o Roles include; gender, age, occupation, multiplicity of other o Roles provide us scripts with whats permitted/what we have to oblige to. o Roles can also be more dynamic fashion, expectations that emerge in the give and take of social interactions  Role enactment vs role playing; fixed expectations vs interactionally as dynamic and evelopmental o Social behavior as learned performance of scripts that follow agreement vs negotiated arrangement that people work out with one another  Role expectations; to coordinate our acts with others until those expectations are violated  In order to play roles we need to know identities of other + our own o Roles may polarize/distance people from one another o Expectations of others can work as barriers to communication/socialization  rRoles give sense of what we are, where we are relative to those with interact with and sense of identity allows to act in ways that are coherent and purposeful o every role has an identity’ the identity gives life to the role o role expectation are breached then trust is betrayed,= feel insecure Harold Garfinkel; understand the constraints of social structure by breaking the hidden rules;  instructed uni students, go home , behve in ways that breached the normal expectations of the their family lives, as if they were boarders and parents = landlords o parents,confused,embaraased, couldn’t make sense of this rule breaking beahviour how understand reaction of deviancefrom the expectation of people;  Theoretical frames of reference/paradigms; Structural Functional Paradigm  Stressed part played by factors that exist independent of an individual, that constrain them to act, think , feel in particular ways o Role of person (in real life) ; expected behavior corresponding to their position in the real world; positions ; statuses o Status ; used to describe societys ranking of roles relative to each other= determine corresponding amount of prestige for the individual o Prestige; high status, degree of authority, expectation of deference from others  Emile Durk; orientation of the concepts of role and status were elaborate, systematized,  Ralph Linton; status is a position to which are attached specific rights and duties; confer reciprocal rights and duties on others who occupy interacting statuses o When people do not fully know and follow agreed on rights/ duties then interaction breaks down and the sitation becomes chaotic and confusing  Breakdowns are rare according to functionalism  Talcot Parson; structural functionalist theorist; society is organized around common values that = source of stability/social order; this is Durkheims concept exteriority o Only when socialization is imperfect/inadqeuated that people break the rules o Reinforce conformity by public sanctions such as shames; Durks concept of constraint  Rober K Merton; Parson’s student’ o Problems = we all play many different roles, thus take on many different rights, and responsibilities o Specific COLLECTION Of statuses we occupy; status sets o Collection of roles in specific single status; as a role set; complement of role relationships ; which person involved by virtue of occupying a particular social status o Multiplicity of statuses; consequently of roles individuals occupt and play; in life; follow recognizable patterns that Merton Terms: status sequence  Status sets, role sets, status sequence = recognition of order/structure in society; Structural func o Sequence = career; individual l progress from student, to uni, to intern, to job Role Stain:tendacy to order and disorder in all life/societies  Roles compete /conflict with others, they produce role strain for an individual; stain above crticial level = distress; or stress  William Coode: Mertons Student; role strain difficult to meet given role demands; is normal; individual total role obligations are over demanding  Role strain undermines order; interferes with peoples ability to play their roles as expected Inadequate socialization: people not knowing the ules of appropriate behavior; major source of strain challenge establish order Role conflict: individuals are called on to play 2/more roles that make incompatible demands; such that conformity to one roles = violated of other Role competition: many/varied roles compete continually for our energy and our time= prioritizing  Merton: social mechanism that help people articulate role sets and status sets = reducing strain  Reduce strain; abide by recognized power difference between roles o Reduce strain by; roles can compartmentalized o Providing opportunies for relinquishing a role o Multiples roles; we function better, make more fully informed choices when we know what defines those roles, what they ivovle for ourselves and others; strains inherent in the roles; sources of those strain, and societal mechanism which reduce strain Interactional Paradigm: actor speaks / behaves in particulare way that produces response from other actors on stage;  roles in society not completely scripted; opportunities for mutual and reciprocal action/reaction to what other actors say and do; social role is dynamic; changing drama st Mead (1 social scientist explicity to use concept of role; as roletaking) and Turner  George Herbet Meads: role theory incorporate concept of significant symbols ( languages ), role taking, mind, self, and society  Human interaction rests on mutual understanding of current symbols of meanings in society  During interaction; response to others behaviours towards us is based on our interpretation of it  Aspects of Roletaking is impression of self, provided by others reaction to us  Have distinct sense of self; can name, recognize objects in the environment and make decisions about the appropriate reaction  MAKE these decisions in the process of internal conversation with self; Mead terms a mind  Mead; humans universally vulnerable; only hope for survival rests on cooperate of others o In new situations; use ingenuity to develop new ways of cooperating  Ralph Turner; actor is not the occupant of a fix status for which there are a neat set of rules’ A culture or set of norms o Person must act in the perspective supplied in part by his relationship ot others whose reactions reflect roles that he must identify o Shift focus of role playing to reciprocal joint processes of role taking and role making o Concept of status from static to dynamic  Role making; devise permance on the basis of an imputed other ole  Role taking; impute to be the role the others appears to be devising o Possibility of inaccuracy; attempts to reinterpret the imputations involved  This process ;shifting axis; involves our continually testing the validity of our presumptions  Acts in role making; attempt to create gestalt for each other, so that they can more effectively role take; get use to the symbolism involved in things o Turners concept of role; interactive and symbolic; tentativeness of meanings; interaction is always highly fluid  Theory deals interaction at the individual level; macro aspect in that other may be the generalized other; constituted by society at larged  Self/ego can be thought of as a group, relationships in groups/ind constantly change in the social order Conflict Paradigm;  W. Perter Archibald” asects of role from conflict perspective, focuses on Marx’s concept of alienation from others o Alienation from others ; 1. We feel indifference or separation, 2. When we approach others, it is for narrow egoistic purposes; 3. When we interact with others, we are more controlled than in control; 4. When we relate to others; it is with feelings of dissatisfaction and even hostility  4 features in generalization ; considered aspects of the symbolic inter paradigm in Erving Goffman;  Indifference/Separation; detachment generalization; o People of different, class/status/power avoid each other  2 classes avoid each other, each feels threatened by other  Position of priviledged depends on continued deference from the underprivileged ; such compliance is not always assured o Goffman states; prevents threats to face, is to avoid contact in which these threats occur’ ; Archibald; avoidance as self protective strategy; plausible explanation for detachment generalization  Mass end’s generalization; 2 class interact; tendency; for it to be on role specific basis, rather than on person abasis;  Control purposiveness generalization; higher class,status,power individuals are more likely than lower class, status, power ones to initiate activity and influence others  Feeling generalization; element hostility underlies much / most interaction between no equals; sometimes there is outright rebellion - Conflict paradigm; perstive to view status and role; less acceptable, instutional aspects and to examine their underside of dissatisfaction, turbulences, and coercion, and even violence and revolution o Stability any degree of permanence; dominance of one group over other by force to maintai - Structural Function paradigm; order ins ociety by wide cultural consensus;= stability longevity Identity; people define themselves and defined by others; result of things people do (roles) the ways their acts are evaluated ( accorded prestige) and reactd to John Hewitt; classifies aspects of identity:  Situated identity focus on identity; emerges through, affects face to face interaction with others  Social identity; identification with groups (family, ethnic ,occupation)&significant catergories(age./gender); define us terms of similarities and difference with some groups  Personal Identity: factors that make us different from others (physical character), aspects of our past we incorporated into our sense of self based on how others reacted and typed us  Social and Personal’ biographical identity; provide continuity as we step into/out carious situated identities.  Identities are establish by our announcement of ourselves by others placement of us Classical Theorist on Identity: Cooley and Mead:  Charles Cooley; looking glass self; Each to each; looking glass; reflects the other that doth pass  Identiy is what we think others think of us; self = how we imagine we appear to others, imagine other/their judgement, then come to self feeling such as pride/mortification -Mead; emphasis on cognitive skills; acquired through role play and through learning the rules of games  Distinction is area of self development; definitions of the play stage and game stage o Play; children assume for themselves the identity of the label applied by parents o Development of identity; biographical identity; result of series of impulses to act/ and the resultant actual responses to those impulses  Impulses are sponteanous/unconscious reaction= delibater  I is spontaneous aspect of self vs Me deliberately behavior of the self  Chosen behavior characters of individual= that individuals self Contemporary Theorist on Identity:  Herbert Blumed; named this social interaction, as exchange of meaning; through symbols, symbolic interactionism; preeminent exponent of this school of social analysis o Situated coping strategies and identities rest on/recognized by material symbols  Gregory Stone; two kinds of identity; Identification of ; when placement coincides with announcement and identification with; when the person who does the announcing enjoys comfortable compatiability with the one who does the placement  An identification of the other = necessary before roletaing can occur; makes possible identification with the other  Erving Goffman; most lucid imaginative exponent of indentity analysis ; involves concepts of role and status; suggesting structural aspect + indicating an interactionist orientation o Structuralism aspect of self presentation ; o Theatretical analogy of two zones of open and explicit role making; front stage o From the hidden role making; back stage o Between back and front stage’ nbrriers to perception that buffer one area from other  Front stage presentation of self; analyzed by 3 factors; 1. Setting, the spatial aspects of things that function as sets/props 2. Appearance; age/sex/clothing/appearance 2. Manner, behavior individuating how ne intends to perform the role = all three factors = front; set of abstract, stereotyped expectations  Goffman’s presentation of self = concepts of role, status, prestige, by an actor, recognized by an audeience o Society is organized on the principle that any individual who possess certain characteristic has moral right to expect others will value/treat in apropriate way o Selfrevelation ; best possible light ourselves ;and concealment; hide aspects of ourselves that could discreditable  Altercasting; strategy of projecting a characteristic of some king of favourable/unfavourable, obligatory/priviledged onto another person with object of achieving advantage for onself o COUNTERPART; Goffman; impression management; effect actrs engage in selfcasting Identity Troubles; Embarassment: -Embarrassment: announced identity is not support or is distorted= unsatisfiactory placement  Result from dissonance between announcement/placement are result of bodily accidents; which cause embarrassment b/c they project a less than fully mature person/ or carless one  Cause = insufficient support for identity announcement;  Mistaken identity placement; person may adequately document an identity; but fail to have others place it because distraction or inadequate attention  Mismanagement of superfluous idetnties; more activities(roles)/identities than are necessary for ensuing transactions o Subordinate roles/identities must be managed so they remain in the background/ don’t interfere with dominant; main purpose o Misalignment of these subordinate/dominant roles/identities = embarrassment when subordinate roles impose on dominant  Embarassment= reserve identities inappropriate surface on dominant identity;  relict identity element of our biographical identity we don’t want to announce=resurfaces Identity Mangement:  Goffman; embarrassment = loss face, the compensate for loss by remedial work,/face work or face saving; remedial work; avoidance, accounts, excuses, disclaimers which are used to prevent
More Less

Related notes for SOC 1100

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit