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Chapter 4

Principles of Sociology Chapter 4 Social Organization September 25.docx

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SOC 1100
John Irwin

Social Organization:  Focuses on roles, identities, groups, organizations o Roles /identities as the main ways in which social structure contrains and changes us  Part of social structure we enact/internalize,  Basic element of social structure, who we are, how we lead our lives  Meeting of social structure, culture, personality Social Nature of Status Role and Identity:  Identities are the names we give ourselves (female, male, child , adolescent, adult, friend, worker, athelete; unsociable, ordinary, unusual, o Who we announce ourselves to be word. ,manner. Appearance, that enable others to respond to or place us in particular ways  First placement birth; children learning meaning of this placement by others, identify with it, and begin to present themselves accordingly. o Adults cannot interact comfortably with others without mutual identification in terms of their gender;  Lifetime of establishing identities, we act in parts, playing out scripts organized in the form of normative expectations called roles; which are attached to social positions/statuses; o Roles include; gender, age, occupation, multiplicity of other o Roles provide us scripts with whats permitted/what we have to oblige to. o Roles can also be more dynamic fashion, expectations that emerge in the give and take of social interactions  Role enactment vs role playing; fixed expectations vs interactionally as dynamic and evelopmental o Social behavior as learned performance of scripts that follow agreement vs negotiated arrangement that people work out with one another  Role expectations; to coordinate our acts with others until those expectations are violated  In order to play roles we need to know identities of other + our own o Roles may polarize/distance people from one another o Expectations of others can work as barriers to communication/socialization  rRoles give sense of what we are, where we are relative to those with interact with and sense of identity allows to act in ways that are coherent and purposeful o every role has an identity’ the identity gives life to the role o role expectation are breached then trust is betrayed,= feel insecure Harold Garfinkel; understand the constraints of social structure by breaking the hidden rules;  instructed uni students, go home , behve in ways that breached the normal expectations of the their family lives, as if they were boarders and parents = landlords o parents,confused,embaraased, couldn’t make sense of this rule breaking beahviour how understand reaction of deviancefrom the expectation of people;  Theoretical frames of reference/paradigms; Structural Functional Paradigm  Stressed part played by factors that exist independent of an individual, that constrain them to act, think , feel in particular ways o Role of person (in real life) ; expected behavior corresponding to their position in the real world; positions ; statuses o Status ; used to describe societys ranking of roles relative to each other= determine corresponding amount of prestige for the individual o Prestige; high status, degree of authority, expectation of deference from others  Emile Durk; orientation of the concepts of role and status were elaborate, systematized,  Ralph Linton; status is a position to which are attached specific rights and duties; confer reciprocal rights and duties on others who occupy interacting statuses o When people do not fully know and follow agreed on rights/ duties then interaction breaks down and the sitation becomes chaotic and confusing  Breakdowns are rare according to functionalism  Talcot Parson; structural functionalist theorist; society is organized around common values that = source of stability/social order; this is Durkheims concept exteriority o Only when socialization is imperfect/inadqeuated that people break the rules o Reinforce conformity by public sanctions such as shames; Durks concept of constraint  Rober K Merton; Parson’s student’ o Problems = we all play many different roles, thus take on many different rights, and responsibilities o Specific COLLECTION Of statuses we occupy; status sets o Collection of roles in specific single status; as a role set; complement of role relationships ; which person involved by virtue of occupying a particular social status o Multiplicity of statuses; consequently of roles individuals occupt and play; in life; follow recognizable patterns that Merton Terms: status sequence  Status sets, role sets, status sequence = recognition of order/structure in society; Structural func o Sequence = career; individual l progress from student, to uni, to intern, to job Role Stain:tendacy to order and disorder in all life/societies  Roles compete /conflict with others, they produce role strain for an individual; stain above crticial level = distress; or stress  William Coode: Mertons Student; role strain difficult to meet given role demands; is normal; individual total role obligations are over demanding  Role strain undermines order; interferes with peoples ability to play their roles as expected Inadequate socialization: people not knowing the ules of appropriate behavior; major source of strain challenge establish order Role conflict: individuals are called on to play 2/more roles that make incompatible demands; such that conformity to one roles = violated of other Role competition: many/varied roles compete continually for our energy and our time= prioritizing  Merton: social mechanism that help people articulate role sets and status sets = reducing strain  Reduce strain; abide by recognized power difference between roles o Reduce strain by; roles can compartmentalized o Providing opportunies for relinquishing a role o Multiples roles; we function better, make more fully informed choices when we know what defines those roles, what they ivovle for ourselves and others; strains inherent in the roles; sources of those strain, and societal mechanism which reduce strain Interactional Paradigm: actor speaks / behaves in particulare way that produces response from other actors on stage;  roles in society not completely scripted; opportunities for mutual and reciprocal action/reaction to what other actors say and do; social role is dynamic; changing drama st Mead (1 social scientist explicity to use concept of role; as roletaking) and Turner  George Herbet Meads: role theory incorporate concept of significant symbols ( languages ), role taking, mind, self, and society  Human interaction rests on mutual understanding of current symbols of meanings in society  During interaction; response to others behaviours towards us is based on our interpretation of it  Aspects of Roletaking is impression of self, provided by others reaction to us  Have distinct sense of self; can name, recognize objects in the environment and make decisions about the appropriate reaction  MAKE these decisions in the process of internal conversation with self; Mead terms a mind  Mead; humans universally vulnerable; only hope for survival rests on cooperate of others o In new situations; use ingenuity to develop new ways of cooperating  Ralph Turner; actor is not the occupant of a fix status for which there are a neat set of rules’ A culture or set of norms o Person must act in the perspective supplied in part by his relationship ot others whose reactions reflect roles that he must identify o Shift focus of role playing to reciprocal joint processes of role taking and role making o Concept of status from static to dynamic  Role making; devise permance on the basis of an imputed other ole  Role taking; impute to be the role the others appears to be devising o Possibility of inaccuracy; attempts to reinterpret the imputations involved  This process ;shifting axis; involves our continually testing the validity of our presumptions  Acts in role making; attempt to create gestalt for each other, so that they can more effectively role take; get use to the symbolism involved in things o Turners concept of role; interactive and symbolic; tentativeness of meanings; interaction is always highly fluid  Theory deals interaction at the individual level; macro aspect in that other may be the generalized other; constituted by society at larged  Self/ego can be thought of as a group, relationships in groups/ind constantly change in the social order Conflict Paradigm;  W. Perter Archibald” asects of role from conflict perspective, focuses on Marx’s concept of alienation from others o Alienation from others ; 1. We feel indifference or separation, 2. When we approach others, it is for narrow egoistic purposes; 3. When we interact with others, we are more controlled than in control; 4. When we relate to others; it is with feelings of dissatisfaction and even hostility  4 features in generalization ; considered aspects of the symbolic inter paradigm in Erving Goffman;  Indifference/Separation; detachment generalization; o People of different, class/status/power avoid each other  2 classes avoid each other, each feels threatened by other  Position of priviledged depends on continued deference from the underprivileged ; such compliance is not always assured o Goffman states; prevents threats to face, is to avoid contact in which these threats occur’ ; Archibald; avoidance as self protective strategy; plausible explanation for detachment generalization  Mass end’s generalization; 2 class interact; tendency; for it to be on role specific basis, rather than on person abasis;  Control purposiveness generalization; higher class,status,power individuals are more likely than lower class, status, power ones to initiate activity and influence others  Feeling generalization; element hostility underlies much / most interaction between no equals; sometimes there is outright rebellion - Conflict paradigm; perstive to view status and role; less acceptable, instutional aspects and to examine their underside of dissatisfaction, turbulences, and coercion, and even violence and revolution o Stability any degree of permanence; dominance of one group over other by force to maintai - Structural Function paradigm; order ins ociety by wide cultural consensus;= stability longevity Identity; people define themselves and defined by others; result of things people do (roles) the ways their acts are evaluated ( accorded prestige) and reactd to John Hewitt; classifies aspects of identity:  Situated identity focus on identity; emerges through, affects face to face interaction with others  Social identity; identification with groups (family, ethnic ,occupation)&significant catergories(age./gender); define us terms of similarities and difference with some groups  Personal Identity: factors that make us different from others (physical character), aspects of our past we incorporated into our sense of self based on how others reacted and typed us  Social and Personal’ biographical identity; provide continuity as we step into/out carious situated identities.  Identities are establish by our announcement of ourselves by others placement of us Classical Theorist on Identity: Cooley and Mead:  Charles Cooley; looking glass self; Each to each; looking glass; reflects the other that doth pass  Identiy is what we think others think of us; self = how we imagine we appear to others, imagine other/their judgement, then come to self feeling such as pride/mortification -Mead; emphasis on cognitive skills; acquired through role play and through learning the rules of games  Distinction is area of self development; definitions of the play stage and game stage o Play; children assume for themselves the identity of the label applied by parents o Development of identity; biographical identity; result of series of impulses to act/ and the resultant actual responses to those impulses  Impulses are sponteanous/unconscious reaction= delibater  I is spontaneous aspect of self vs Me deliberately behavior of the self  Chosen behavior characters of individual= that individuals self Contemporary Theorist on Identity:  Herbert Blumed; named this social interaction, as exchange of meaning; through symbols, symbolic interactionism; preeminent exponent of this school of social analysis o Situated coping strategies and identities rest on/recognized by material symbols  Gregory Stone; two kinds of identity; Identification of ; when placement coincides with announcement and identification with; when the person who does the announcing enjoys comfortable compatiability with the one who does the placement  An identification of the other = necessary before roletaing can occur; makes possible identification with the other  Erving Goffman; most lucid imaginative exponent of indentity analysis ; involves concepts of role and status; suggesting structural aspect + indicating an interactionist orientation o Structuralism aspect of self presentation ; o Theatretical analogy of two zones of open and explicit role making; front stage o From the hidden role making; back stage o Between back and front stage’ nbrriers to perception that buffer one area from other  Front stage presentation of self; analyzed by 3 factors; 1. Setting, the spatial aspects of things that function as sets/props 2. Appearance; age/sex/clothing/appearance 2. Manner, behavior individuating how ne intends to perform the role = all three factors = front; set of abstract, stereotyped expectations  Goffman’s presentation of self = concepts of role, status, prestige, by an actor, recognized by an audeience o Society is organized on the principle that any individual who possess certain characteristic has moral right to expect others will value/treat in apropriate way o Selfrevelation ; best possible light ourselves ;and concealment; hide aspects of ourselves that could discreditable  Altercasting; strategy of projecting a characteristic of some king of favourable/unfavourable, obligatory/priviledged onto another person with object of achieving advantage for onself o COUNTERPART; Goffman; impression management; effect actrs engage in selfcasting Identity Troubles; Embarassment: -Embarrassment: announced identity is not support or is distorted= unsatisfiactory placement  Result from dissonance between announcement/placement are result of bodily accidents; which cause embarrassment b/c they project a less than fully mature person/ or carless one  Cause = insufficient support for identity announcement;  Mistaken identity placement; person may adequately document an identity; but fail to have others place it because distraction or inadequate attention  Mismanagement of superfluous idetnties; more activities(roles)/identities than are necessary for ensuing transactions o Subordinate roles/identities must be managed so they remain in the background/ don’t interfere with dominant; main purpose o Misalignment of these subordinate/dominant roles/identities = embarrassment when subordinate roles impose on dominant  Embarassment= reserve identities inappropriate surface on dominant identity;  relict identity element of our biographical identity we don’t want to announce=resurfaces Identity Mangement:  Goffman; embarrassment = loss face, the compensate for loss by remedial work,/face work or face saving; remedial work; avoidance, accounts, excuses, disclaimers which are used to prevent
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