Chapter 3 pages 68-75
Canadians and Americans: What makes us different?
Historically (An idea set forth by Seymour Martin Lipset) … Canada falls
somewhere between The United States and Great Britain with respect to values.
- I.E. Think of heroes like Billy the kid (US) vs. The Canadian Mountie…
- Values like the good of the whole vs. the good of the individual resulted in programs
like universal health care.
Roger Suave (1994) gathered data… Bricker and Wright (2005) refined it.
More American(s)… than Canadians.
believe in Hell and the devil…
become young/teen moms…
marriages end in divorce…
aged 25-64, graduate university…
are generally more religious…
believe same sex marriage is wrong…
believe in the death penalty…
believe pot should remain illegal…
More Canadian(s)… than Americans.
are okay with premarital sex…
believe in restrictive gun laws…
believe Canada has a major influence on world affairs…
believe Canadians and Americans are friends and allies…
Fewer Canadians than Americans are in favor of Canada becoming part of the US. (This
percentage has declined even more from the time of Suave to Bricker and Wright.) However,
Canadians are generally not completely opposed to the idea of economic union. I.E. Unified
currency, exchange rates, etc…
p. 68 Societies of increasing/higher income = increasing/higher individualistic values.
I.E. focuses on quality of life.
Therefore, are generally Secular-Rational.: "Less emphasis on family ties and
religious beliefs. More emphasis on independence and diversity."
Norms: Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
Proscriptive: "What we should not do"
Ex. When health officials warn against unprotected sex.
Prescriptive: "What we should do"
Ex. Practice safe sex.
Some Norms are situational, while others apply to all times.
Ex. Applauding after a sermon vs. a lecture vs. a performance…
Mores vs. Folkways
Mores: Norms that are wildly observed and have great moral significance.
Ex. Public Nudity
Folkways: Norms for routine/casual interaction
Ex. Appropriate Attire
Ex. Man shows up to part naked vs. Man shows up to party with a terrible tie
Observing or breaking the rules (norms) of social interaction prompts a response (reward or
punishment) from others. Which then sanctions Social Control: Attempts by others to regulate
peoples thoughts and behaviors.
Therefore, and increased knowledge of the norms = an increased self/behavioral evaluation.
I.E. "Only cultural animals can experience shame and guilt."
Mark Twain: "People are the only animals that blush - or need to." Ideal Culture: Social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms.
Real Culture: Actual social patterns that approximate cultural expectations.
I.E. No one lives up to ideal standards 100% of the time. Ex. It's wrong to cheat on your
husband/wife, and yet 14% of men and 7% of women cheat anyways.
Symbolic Norms vs. Physical Artifacts Ex. Chopsticks/forks, flowing/tight fitting clothes…
Reflect underlying values.
Technology: Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings. The more
advanced, the more influential it can be. New Technology (post industrial age = computer
processors that create and store informatio