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Chapter 4

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1100
Professor
c
Semester
Fall

Description
thChapter 4 Sept 20 2012Gerhard and Jean Lenski describe how societies have changed over the past 10 000 years and point to the importance of technology in shaping any societyKarl Marx probed into the roots of the social conflict that arises from the positions of owners and workers in the production of material goodsMax Weber shows that the power of ideas shapes society contrasted the traditional thinking of simple societies with the rational thought that dominates complex societies todayEmile Durkheim shows us the different ways that traditional and modern societies hang togetherGerhard and Jean Lenski Society and TechnologyHelp us to understand the great differences among societies that have existed throughout human historyUse the term sociocultural evolutionThe societies with simplest technology have little control over nature can only support a small number of peopleSocieties with complex technology support hundreds of millions of people in far more affluent ways of lifeInventingadopting new technology sends change all throughout a societyFive types of societies defined by their technology huntergatherer societies horticultural and pastoral societies agrarian societies industrial societies and the postindustrial societiesHunterGatherer SocietiesSimplest of all societiesFrom 3 million12 000 years ago all humans were hunter gatherersLittle ability to control their environment spend most of their time looking for game and collecting plants to eatRarely form permanent settlementsDepend on the family to do many things such as to get and distribute food protect its members and teach the childrenPeople spend most of their time getting their next mealAge and gender have some effect on what they doSpiritual leaderCome close to being socially equalSocioCultural EvolutionHunting and Horticultural Agrarian SocietiesIndustrial PostIndustrial Gathering and Pastoral SocietiesSocieties SocietiesSocietiesHistorical Only type of society From about 12 000 From about 5000 years From about 1750 to Emerging in recent Perioduntil about 12 000 years ago with ago with large but the presentdecadesyears ago still decreasing numbers decreasing numbers common several after about 3000 BCEtodaycenturies ago the few examples remaining today threatened with extinction
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