SOC 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Victimless Crime, Plea Bargain, Hate Crime

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3 Dec 2011
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Sociology: Chapter 9 (Deviance)
Deviance: recognized violation of cultural norms
Primary deviance ~ passing episodes that may provoke slight reaction
Secondary deviance ~ person repeatedly violates a norm, takes on deviant identity
Crime: violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law
Social control: attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviour
Criminal justice system: a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the
law
Labelling Theory: the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from
how others respond to those actions
Stigma: a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity
Medicalization of deviance: the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
White-collar crime: crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupation
Corporate crime: the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
Organized crime: a business that supplies illegal goods or services
Hate crime: a criminal act against a person or person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other
bias.
Violent Crimes: crimes against people that involve violence or threat of violence
Property crimes: crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others
Victimless crimes: violations of laws in which there are no readily apparent victims
Plea bargain: a legal negotiation in which the prosecution reduces a defendant’s charge in exchange for a
guilty plea
Retribution: an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering
caused by the crime
Deterrence: the attempt to discourage criminality through punishment
Rehabilitation: a program for reforming the offender to preclude subsequent offences
Societal Protection: rendering an offender incapable of further offences either temporarily through
incarceration or permanently by execution
Criminal Recidivism: subsequent offences by people previously convicted of crimes
Community-based corrections: correctional programs operating within society at large, rather than behind
prison walls
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